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Norman Van Aken Celebrates an Anniversary with a Cast of Culinary Stars

Norman Van Aken Celebrates an Anniversary with a Cast of Culinary Stars

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Norman Van Aken isn't what you'd call a trendy chef, but for decades he has pretty much owned exciting, original modern American cuisine in southern Florida, and as an exponent of exotic raw materials and tropical cooking traditions, he has influenced chefs far beyond the Sunshine State. In the past, Van Aken has run restaurants in Key West, Coral Gables, and even, once and for too short a time, the far western Florida suburb of Los Angeles. Today, he has just a pair of places: Tuyo, at the Miami Culinary Institute, and Norman's Restaurant at The Ritz-Carlton Hotel in the Orlando enclave of Grande Lakes.

The latter has been in business for 10 years this month, and Van Aken (who has a funny and evocative memoir coming out in December) decided to throw himself an anniversary party on Aug. 24 for about 200 guests, in a hotel banquet room, with the help of some friends. These included three chefs he has long cooked with in various contexts — Emeril Lagasse, Charlie Trotter, and Dean Fearing — as well as a newer acquaintance, Jeremiah Tower, and a couple of local culinary stars, Brandon McGlamery of Luma on Park and Scott Hunnel of Victoria & Albert's in the Disney-owned Grand Floridian Resort & Spa. The group planned an eight-course dinner, accompanied by wines chosen by a group of Florida-based Master Sommeliers.

As it happened, Trotter was under the weather and couldn't make it, but his longtime number-two, Michael Rotondo (now cooking at Parallel 37 in San Francisco) subbed for him ably. No chef, no matter how skilled, can turn out the same level of food for 200 people in a strange kitchen that he could produce in his own restaurant for a few diners at a time. That's a given. But these guys came pretty close. There may have been a piece of overcooked fish, a presentation that was a little twee, but overall the food was superb. Lagasse offered an inelegant-looking but irresistibly delicious boned-out quail stuffed with Florida shrimp and mirliton (chayote) over a grilled chanterelle salad; McGlamery crafted veal casoncelli (twisted pasta stuffed with sweetbreads) with summer truffles and smoked corn; Van Aken's own dish, made with his chef Juan Rendón, was a piece of wreckfish with butifarra sausage, caramelized cured foie gras, and a reduction of veal jus and port; Fearing killed it with a maple-soaked bison tenderloin, charred and rare, alongside an enchilada filled with chile-braised rabbit.

The wines were exceptional, from the elegant Taittinger 2005 poured generously at the stand-up reception before dinner to the amber-hued sweet Domaine Philippe Delesvaux Saint Aubin Coteaux du Layon served with Ritz-Carlton pastry chef Stephane Chéramy's jewel-like dessert assortment. (Galerie Sauvignon Blanc 2012, Château Beaucastel Finca Sandoval Signo 2009, and Rudd Winery Samantha's Cabernet Sauvignon 2008 were among the other highlights).

Timing is everything in serving a multicourse banquet on this scale, and The Ritz-Carlton staff paced the presentation of the courses perfectly. The whole affair was an illustration of what real professionals can accomplish, and as such was a fitting tribute to Van Aken and his restaurant.

Norman Van Aken Celebrates an Anniversary with a Cast of Culinary Stars - Recipes

Everything is superb. My favorite is the Peking Duck. While Orlando is infamous for its high priced culinary tourist traps, Chathams is where the locals find solace.

84 - 88 of 787 reviews

Chathams Place has been our "go to" restaurant for special occasions for many years. There is a reason why. The food is just delicious and always a pleasant surprise, the atmosphere is romantic, the piano player is great and the staff and servers are first class professionals. Now for full disclosure this is not a "cheap" place to dine, but you get what you pay for. My wife and I recently dined here to celebrate our 41st wedding anniversary. I made reservations and asked for a particular table, one we always sit at in a quiet corner. The reservation process was fast and they were happy to accommodate our request. Upon arriving we were greeted by the expert staff, shown to our special table and our server sprinkled some " happy anniversary" confetti on the table, a nice touch. Our server, Lorenzo, is the best and most professional I have encountered at any restaurant and we have dined at the best. He explained the menu, offered suggestions and did not try to up sell anything. As a matter of fact I ordered one of the least expensive entree's and it was just delicious. My wife ordered the twin fillets and raved about them all night. The sides we great and the chef sends little samples to your table throughout your meal. I probably did not know what I was eating but each one was a symphony on the tongue. Your meal at Chathams is an event and can take several hours, I was never rushed and we actually stayed 2 1/2 hours as we enjoyed listening to the very talented piano player. You are never rushed and you feel as if the table is yours for the night. If you are looking for a high class, intimate dinner that is the best in Central Florida and probably beyond look no further than Chathams. You will thank me !

We have eaten here many times over the years to celebrate special occasion or entertain very special guests and have always been delighted by the food and the service. You will not find a more attentive wait staff, wherever. If you enjoy Piano Jazz, you will enjoy Bob Rose who will play you requests and set a delightful ambiance for your meal.

There’s always Blackened Grouper on the menu and it is wonderful. Our daughter had the duck and our granddaughter had the lamb and enjoyed very much.

There are wonderful deserts and the wine selection is extensive. If you live here in Orlando and have not dined here, you are missing something special. If you are visiting Orlando, this is a must do. You will enjoy.

Thank you so much! We appreciate the time you took to write such a sweet review. We feel honored to be your special occasion place. We look forward to seeing you again soon!

A Place with Charm and Ambiance!

No words can describe this great classic place
No words can describe it's fantastic AMBIANCE
No words can describe it's Charm
No words can describe how hard, but flawlessly they work to please you
No words can describe it's great kitchen works
. in other words:
We love you dear ”Chatham's Place”!

For us, in our impenitent foodie’s heart, as mentioned many times dining is an Art, and -as an Art- it needs to communicate, to provoke and to offer emotions, either good or bad ones. The worst that can happen, can be, that it let you indifferent or emotionless and ”Chatham’s” is not certain, the kind of those places, where you would receive a sense of emotionless. It's many virtues, like its setting, it's cozy ambiance, its great classic food, and well-prepared recipes, from their opened kitchen, its fantastic friendly service, and it's charm, are among, one of those, that wouldn't let you go filling emotionless when visiting their place
That's why I’m of those -deeply believers- that when you go out, looking for a nice gastronomic evening, that evening, regardless its many Michelin Stars, regardless its great-trendy-newer recipes and greater wines list, regardless an impeccable service, regardless it's nice-fine setting or interiors, regardless having a comfy sitting.

This one is a long time due Visit and Review to ”Chatham’s Place”, a Place that is highly rated and located among FAVORITES IN GREATER ORLANDO Areas
This is a place -as well- located among our longtime favorites.
A place that can be enjoyed by us, when we are in our dear second home, in North Orlando areas. A place -as well- that we do visit many times in the past, but for many different reasons we hadn't enjoyed for a very long time. We felt kind of a sense of ”guilty conscience” for overlooking Chatham's Place -lately- as one highly located in the orchestra of fine dining-preferred restaurants in our wish list here. A place that is -highly- among our selected gastronomic places, like ”Luma”, ”Hillstone”, together with ”Ravenous Pig”, ”Prato”, ”Luke’s” and ”Enzo’s by the Lake”, topping -as well- that list. Not to forget, of course, places like ”Victoria & Albert”, a place that holds a soft spot in our Foodie’s heart. Plus “Bull & Bear” and ”Le Coq Au Vin”, as our old time french favorite place in whole Florida. Most of them are southern, far located, from our home, in Greater Orlando areas. On that top list we need to include -farther as well- but northern Orlando’s Mount Dora’s ”1921 by Norman Van Aken” with chef Camilo Velasco in that kitchen.
On our never-ending quest for -newer and better- Gastroplaces we just returned from a cherished, long and longtime planned Gatrotour on (almost) all Spain and Portugal. After those experiences, all our actual expectations were revised and actualized within a context, learned and derived from those great Haut Cuisines places and their countless Michelin stars.
That gastronomic adventure began in Barcelona at places like “ABaC”, “Moments”, “Caelis”, “Xerta”, ”Enigma” and ”Tickets”, the cases 2 from same guys that created the world-famous ”El Bulli”. From Catalunya we went to enjoy ”La Rioja”, its wines and its famous ”Marques de Riscal” restaurant, designed by none other than Frank Gehry. After La Rioja, via Pamplona, we had the most fantastic -possible foodie experiences, in Basque Country with its highly rated gastronomic places - all of them already reviewed and published on TA: ”Arzak”, ”Akelarre”, ”Mugaritz” and ”Berasategui”. ending there at none other than ”Azurmendi”. From there we went to ”Ribera del Duero”, where we had great moments at ”El Refectorio” and ”Taller Arzuaga”. In Galicia, we discovered their new kitchen trends at ”Culler de Pau” and ”Yayo Daporta”. After crossing Miño River, we landed in Portugal’s old beautiful Porto city. There we went to ”Yeatman”, ”Antiqvvm” and ”Barao de Fladgate”. Our route drove us down to Caceres, where we visited ”Atrio’s” grand chef Toño Perez. We ended, our fantastic gastronomic journey, in majestic Madrid at ”Coque”, ”Ramon Freixa”, ”Etimo” and our dearest ”Zalacain”. the place that introduced us, together with ”L’Auberge de L’ill” and ”La Tour d’Argent”, back in mid 80s, to the gastronomic pleasures of ”Fine Cuisine”. cuisine as an ART!
That kind of routing info was described, each one and thoroughly, on my previous TA reviews. They can be of interests to our readers, as many questions have raised from many of them. Precisely, from that wider scope of experiences received, love to narratively frame our notes for our greater Orlando experiences, like this one. on Chatham’s Place
This notes would be seeking to renovate our love votes -as well- on this place and its graceful style offered on its even better AMBIANCE
So. regrettably, with NO- reasonable excuses we hadn't been in ”Chatham's Place” lately, but last Friday, we did remedy that -inner- faultless sensation, when we decided to go there. once more time.
Of course we do know that in each region and places they are limitations on ingredients and lack of interests in mastering those ”newer” cooking techniques. which -in Spain- seemed formidable and prodigal, but here, in Central Florida areas, they are of no interest to our segment of costumers
That's why each and every place needs to be judged within its context and its circumstances. That's why - as a professional involved in Restaurants and Resort business- I felt obliged to include so many important details, in my narrative and descriptions, but avoiding or compromise -always- my own inner truth, as an encouragement to my own inner strengths.
Let's see, step by step, my notes on this great Place:
> LOCATION- Its location has been the same, since they first opened, in the nice Dr Phillips Boulevard areas and nearby on what is today is commonly know and called ”the restaurant Row”, in Sand Lake Road. There, this place, is shining highly among an orchestra of many different restaurant offerings
>AMBIANCE- As is located in a kind of a Courtyard area -of the building- it looks, at first, like a hidden -hard to find- place, but easy to find our ways to it.
There is with ample parking areas, regardless Valet Parking services
As you enter it, you realized that you found:
- A heavenly classic foodies Place with Charm -
As you enter the Place, is evident ”its warm and postal like image” and appearance from its real, original, classic charm. That kind of charm -as we love- is evident. just at first glance:
Perfect table setting -in an L shape- around an opened kitchen (one of the very firsts of its kind in Orlando), live music -nicely played in a piano- by Bob (good olde ones), attractive original deco (not an artsy fartsy one), nice softened lights design, plus a classic table sitting arrangement and its table dressed by nice tablecloth (important issue to us), china, silverware and properly set glasses to better enjoyment of their extensive wines list.
”all is charm all is right”. using parodies, as that old Christmas song goes!
All involved in a fantastic, rather an unpretentious ambiance style, but without any kind of informalities that could spoil that ambiance
Tony Lopez, as owner and executive chef says that he settles for nothing less than excellence from his brilliant menu which includes many herbs, vegetables, and fruits from his own organic farm. He, proudly states that his seasonally driven dishes are ”impeccable” created, prepared and served to impress his costumers. His passion for cuisine has helped him become not only a Chef, but an artist working his recipes as a work of art. as we like and mentioned before.
As head sommelier, they had one of the bests around in Peter Freeman, as I - as self-proclaimed wines connoisseur reconfirmed in our conversations that evening. He is a great gentleman, deeply in love and acknowledgeable of wines and takes good care of that extensive and nice wine list at Chatham's Place. Besides that he also oversees all those many details needed in the dining room's service team. I clearly remember him, on our firsts visits to Chatham’s, on the early-90s.
On the floor, we had an excellent service from Hugo and he was, together with many others, an example of the wide origins of their nice, well trained staff
To properly start or evening, after consulting Peter, we selected a nice ”Drappier” NV Champagne. A perfect and delicious one with its blend of Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier, had excellent depth within a well structured core base on it red fruits and a very nice creamy textures on palate
As most of the times, knowing that we were there, we bring over, resting for years in our Orlando Cellar, a ”Gevrey Chambertin, 1er Cru Les Champonnets”, from Phillipe Leclerc (which visited 3 years back St his Gevrey Cellars) on his 2010 fantastic vintage. A perfect wine to be paring our main courses. It was a handsome wine on its profound ruby colors and amber tones on our glass ring On the nose it revealed some minerals, cherries and spices. It was an invigorating, but perfumed on palate wine, framed by that spicy structure, which offered us a long aftertaste within a kind of a ”Masculine roundness”, rather than usual feminine Bourgogne elegance!
Our selected recipes, after hearing their newest offerings perfectly describe by Hugo, who took excellent care of us through the evening, were kind of a tasting of their classic and newer ones, let's see:
After a nice, artistry presented on the table and better tasting on palates, ”Amuse Bouches”, courtesy of the House, we began with our ”Appetizers”:
Two (2) different seafood soups recipes ”Lobster Bisque” for my dear wife and ”Crab Corn Chowder” for myself, both were greatly prepared at the kitchen, but mine was superb with its balances and great pieces of none deconstructed Crab offering the needed contrasts. a great dish served tableside.
After that, as impenitent foodies, we shared their new recipe of ”Cold Antipasto”. greatly looking on the table and perfect on its variety of products, like cheese and terrine, eggs topped with caviar, toasted crusts, seafood and fish treats, all of them with their nice kitchen touches and artistry served on table to be shared by both of us
After that we received a nice creation seafood treat from kitchen. as a personalize welcome back present, from Chatham’s chefs, ”paisanos” from our DR country of origins, hard working in that kitchen, since they first opened
After that, as my wife is a truly ”Oysters lover”, we had 1 1/2 Service of their own ”version” from the classic Rockefeller recipe.
As main courses we had their ”classics”. the kind of meaty dish recipes, oldies but truly goodies, which are among those highly preferred by us:
”Rack of Lamb”, good looking on plate and perfectly cooked -oldie style as said, but a superb fantastically goodie classic recipe, preserving as cooked, its meaty flavors and its meat juices and served in a whole Rack style
For myself. if there is Duck on any many I’m not to overlook it but to try as many times as possible those Ducks, a fowl meat that I love. This one was a roasted breast of Duck, properly cooked ”a point”, which is to say not too rare, not too overcooked. preserving its juice meat as it should be to be properly enjoyed. paired with that Phillipe Leclerc’s Gevrey was a match in heavens!
Knowing that they had another classic that we love, we ordered ahead of time it. we are talking -of course- about one of the greatest classic desserts recipes of all times the ”Souflé Grand Marnier” !
Between recipe and the recipe and glasses of wines we - especially my dear wife- were enjoying the nice piano, live and soul, interpreted as an entertainer by Bob. the true-classic-kind of music, hard to find, anywhere else not only in Greater Orlando, but in most of our today’s gastronomic -pretended- high-end Places. lacking Soul and Charm, as we re-encountered and found -again- in our dearest ”Chatham’s Place” !
In other words:
Not just a simple dinner.
A dinner in a classic Place with Charm and Ambiance!

MARY POPPINS will be available in Blu-ray Combo Pack & HD Digital – December 10, 2013 in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the movie release.

Bonus features will include popular music from the film including “Spoon Full of Sugar, ” Step in Time”, Supercalifragilisiticexpialidocious,” and “Chim Chim Cher-ee” and clips from meetings between Richard Sherman, and Jason Schwartzman (who portrays Mr. Sherman in SAVING MR. BANKS). The Sherman brothers, Robert and Richard wrote all the classic songs from MARY POPPINS.

Has Gino D’Acampo been in prison? The TV chef robbed Paul Young's house in the 90s!

The chef and TV personality made a comeback last year with the series Gino’s Italian Express, giving us a delicious round of authentic local cuisine. The series was inspired from Gino’s culinary book of the same name which celebrates Italian food while Gino travels on a train across the country.

Now, this year has seen Gino land an even bigger role, as he’s named the new host of Family Fortunes on ITV.

So, what’s the story with Gino is prison? Here’s everything we know about the chef’s unlucky mishap.

Screenshot: Gino D’Acampo in Gino’s Italian Express

Why did Gino D’Acampo go in prison?

Gino D’Acampo went to prison with robbery charges.

Before becoming the renowned chef he is today, Gino enjoyed far less famous past. He first moved in London back in 1995 to work in a restaurant.

MasterChef 2021 | Trailer - BBC Trailers

But just a few years later, he was found guilty of robbing the home of singer Paul Young. Gino reportedly stole Paul’s £4,000 guitar collection and a platinum disc from his Mill Hill house.

When did Gino go to prison?

Gino was only 22 years old when he robbed Paul’s home in 1998.

He was sentenced to jail the same year he did the burglary and spent two years in prison.

The chef had left cigarette filters in Paul’s bedroom which was used in the court as an evidence. A DNA test proved that Gino broke in the singer’s house.

What were the results of Gino’s burglary?

In an interview for The Mirror , Paul revealed that alongside the items Gino stole, there was also music with memories of his late wife Stacey Smith who sadly passed away in 2018.

Paul candidly opened up about Gino’s burglary, saying that he was left with “mixed emotions” since he never got back the stolen items linked to his wife.

“I try to keep a light-hearted attitude on that, ” Paul added about the accident. “He gets enough stick on social networking – he doesn’t need my help as well.”

The Boheme

Hotel: a delicious word that conjures crisp sheets, sleeping in, vacation. "Brunch" is another sleep-in kind of word. And when the accommodations in question are as top-tier as the Grand Bohemian Hotel Orlando, then you know the brunch - in this case a Jazz Brunch at its acclaimed Boheme restaurant - is going to be something truly exceptional. Whether it's to linger in the last moments of your sumptuous weekend stay, in celebration of a special occasion or simply a decadent splurge, Sunday brunch at the Boheme will run you $45 per person ($15 for kids 6-12) and showcases all the hallmarks of high-end: a prime rib carving station, custom omelet station and fresh waffle station among them. Of course, brunch being what it is, it makes sense that you might want some snow crab legs, oysters or steamed shrimp to pair with that waffle. And did we mention the Kitchen Action Station, where seafood and meats are prepared to order? And that's not even the spread in its entirety. We're not sure how you'll save room for dessert, but we're sure you'll manage. Start strategizing now.

Recommended for Fine Dining because: This is well beyond a simple meal. You'll see what we mean from the rich wood furnishings, hand-selected ingredients and extensive wine list.

Michelle's expert tip: The Grand Bohemian is just, well - sexy. Consider making your dining experience a delicious part of a romantic getaway.

Share All sharing options for: Fall 2014 Food and Drink Events Preview

Here now, Eater's Fall 2014 Food and Drink Events Preview. Below you will find events, conferences, and festivals happening from September to December that are focused on restaurants, chefs, food, and/or beverages.

Marquee international events like Semana Mesa SP (Brazil) and Gastronomika (Spain) will play host to a slew of big-name chefs this Fall.The next few months is also rife with events that fuse good food with good music: Food Network in Concert at Ravinia (Illinois), Life is Beautiful (Nevada), and Music to Your Mouth (South Carolina) all feature a lengthy line-up of chefs and bands. There are plenty of panel discussions and cooking demonstrations at the events listed below, but there are also atypical activities like an afternoon quail hunt (Jubilee, South Carolina) and a Frito pie tasting (FUZE.SW, New Mexico).

And this Fall sees the return of big events including Feast Portland, Christopher Kostow's Twelve Days of Christmas at Meadowood Napa Valley, the Southern Foodways Symposium in Oxford, and the New York City Wine & Food Festival.

Below, the list of events. If you see anything missing, you know what to do.


Music City Eats 2013 [Photo: Official Site]

Taste Talks

When: September 12 - 14
Where: Brooklyn, NY
What: Chef Danny Bowien is curating the second Taste Talks conference in Brooklyn while chef Mario Batali will serve as the conference's official presenter. There will be panel discussions and demos with chefs Andy Ricker, Brooks Headley, Christina Tosi, and Dale Talde. Food media folk like Sam Sifton, Peter Meehan, Kate Krader, and Adam Sachs round out a lineup that also includes rapper Action Bronson and model Elettra Wiedemann. The conference will also include a chicken and waffles brunch, an oyster and sparkling wine cocktail hour, a pop-up dinner from food start up Dinner Lab, and an All-Star Chef BBQ, which will feature over 20 chefs like Lee Tiernan and Jamie Bissonnette at 12 different grilling stations.


When: September 12-20
Where: New York City
What: The nine-day festival celebrates all thing Nordic cuisine through cooking classes covering topics like pastry, seafood, and foraging, plus dinners, a coffee and dessert tasting, and a hot dog championship. Participating chefs Sasu Laukkonen, Maria Östberg, Ulrika Bengtsson, Friday Ronge, and forager Sami Tällberg.

Feast Portland

When: September 18 - 21
Where: Portland, OR
What: The third annual Feast Portland will feature over 30 events at various locations around the city. The roster of chefs attending is extensive: Hugh Acheson, Matthew Accarrino, Jamie Bissonnette, Mike Solomonov, Matt McCallister, Marco Canora, Homaro Cantu, Dominique Crenn, Ari Taymor, Edward Lee, Aaron Franklin, Anita Lo, Jon Shook, Kuniko Yagi, Paul Qui, Andy Ricker, Paul Kahan, and Christina Tosi will all be in attendance. Plenty of Portland chefs like Gabriel Rucker and Naomi Pomeroy will be there too, as well as a host of craft breweries, and writers like Andrew Knowlton and Talia Baiocchi. Like years past, there will be a sandwich invitational and a night market (which is already sold out). Feast Portland also includes classes on subjects like candy and artisanal soda making, as well as plenty of food and drink from the Pacific Northwest.

Music City Food + Wine Festival

When: September 20 - 21
Where: Nashville, TN
What: Formerly known as Music City Eats, the festival returns this year to celebrate Nashville's food and music culture. Chefs from around the country like Tim Love, Masaharu Morimoto, Michael Symon, Andrew Zimmern, Jonathan Waxman, and Amanda Freitag will be in town to lead various demos. Musican (and cooking show host) Trisha Yearwood will also show the crowd how to make skillet apple pie. Top local chefs and wine and spirit makers will serve up food and drink on both days, too. Rock band Kings of Leon will also curate Harvest Night which will feature dishes from renowned chefs and live music.

Also in September:

· Hawaii Food and Wine Festival: The Hawaii Food and Wine Festival returns for its fourth year and the chef line-up includes Nancy Silverton, Jonathan Waxman Ming Tsai, Art Smith, Floyd Cardoz, Andy Ricker, Dean Fearing, Masaharu Morimoto, Sang Yoon, and many more. (August 29 - September 7)

· Mistura: Peru's annual gastronomic festival returns to Lima again this year. The 10-day festival features, farmers, bakers, and big name chefs from across the world. (September 5 - 14)

· Meatopia UK: Josh Ozersky's meatfest returns to London for the second year. Meatopia UK will featuring classic and contemporary barbecue dishes from chefs like David Carter, Neil Rankin, Justin Smillie, Maria Tampakis, and more. (September 6 - 7)

· The Roots of American Food: Imbibe & inspire's second annual Roots of American food conference will honor legendary chef Jeremiah Tower. Participating chefs include Matt Jennings, Dave Beran, Bryce Shuman, Dominique Crenn, Jamie Malone, and many more. Photographer Evan Sung, blogger Andrew Friedman, and writer Francis Lam will also be in attendance. (September 7 - 8)

· FUZE.SW: Santa Fe's food conference is in its second year and will feature panels and lectures centered on New Mexican foodways. Activities include the Green Chile Cheeseburger Smackdown, a Frito pie tasting, and a presentation from chef and James Beard Award winner Maricel Presilla. (September 12 - 14)

· Taste America: The James Beard Foundation's touring series of one-night-only dinners cooked by renowned chefs returns for its second year. It will make stops in ten cities — including Boston, New York City, and Phoenix — and Daniel Boulud, Barbara Lynch, Paul Qui, an Grant Achatz are all on the list of participating chefs. (September 12 - October 25)

· TMBBQ Fest: The annual TMBBQ Fest will feature barbecue from the magazine's top 50 list, including Pecan Lodge, Franklin Barbecue, and The Granary 'Cue and Brew. There will also be plenty of beer on hand at the event in Austin, Texas. (September 14)

· Eat Real Festival: The festival returns to Oakland, California and is free-to-attend. The focus is on street food from hot dogs to falafel to tacos from over 50 vendors. (September 19 - 21)

· Epcot International Food & Wine Festival: Epcot's nearly two month long annual festival features 25 global marketplaces with bites from around the world, demos, dinners, a concert series, and a "Sparkling Dessert Party." (September 19 - November 10)

· Food Network in Concert at Ravinia: Food Network Magazine is launching its first-ever outdoor music festival just outside of Chicago with a lineup of its celebrity chefs including the likes of Alex Guarnaschelli, Anne Burrell, and Geoffrey Zakarian. Local chefs like Paul Virant will also be in attendance and there will be live music courtesy of artists like John Mayer and Phillip Phillips. (September 20)

· Greenwich Wine & Food Festival: This year's Greenwich Wine & Food Festival will feature cooking demos and tastings from chefs like Jean-Georges Vongerichten, Geoffrey Zakarian, Anne Burrell, and Aaron Sanchez. There will also be musical performances from the Marshall Tucker Band and Alabama. (September 25-27)

· Chicago Gourmet: The annual Chicago Gourmet features a line-up Chicago's best talent including chefs Stephanie Izard, Andrew Zimmerman, and Rick Bayless, plus chefs from around the country like Jeni Britton Bauer and Masaharu Morimoto. Since Chicago will host the James Beard Awards next year, the theme for this year's festival will focus on the James Beard Foundation. (September 26 - 28)


New York City Wine and Food Festival 2013 [Photo: NYCWFF/Facebook]

Taste Talks

When: October 3-5
Where: Chicago, IL
What: Chef Paul Kahan is curating the first-ever Taste Talks conference in Chicago. Like its Brooklyn counterpart, chef Mario Batali will serve as the conference's official presenter. Chefs like Amanda Cohen, Rick Bayless, and Jason Hammel will participate in demos and panels. The conference will also feature a pop-up dinner from food startup Dinner Lab with chef Pat Sheerin of Trencherman. It will conclude with an All-Star Chef BBQ with food from chefs Danny Bowien, Paul Kahan, Matty Matheson, and more.


When: October 5 - 8
Where: San Sebastian, Spain
What: This year's Gastronomika will celebrate Italy and its dining scene. Italian chefs like Massimo Bottura, Moreno Cedroni, and more will be in attendance at the conference in San Sebastian. This year's congress will feature presentations from prominent Spanish chefs like Juan Mari and Elena Arzak, Joan and Jordi Roca, and Andoni Luis Aduriz. Talks will be on topics like high-tech sauces, minimalism, and Alpine haute cuisine.

New York City Wine & Food Festival

When: October 16 - 19
Where: New York City
What: The roster for this year's New York City Wine & Food Festival includes Food Network and Cooking Channel stars like Ted Allen, Bobby Flay, and Rachael Ray, and famous chefs like Mario Batali, Dan Barber, John Besh, and Michelle Bernstein. Events include a Hot Dog Happy Hour, a cooking class with Martha Stewart, a 40th anniversary dinner at Le Cirque, and the annual burger competition, Burger Bash. As in years previous, the program also includes a slew of small dinners, panels, talks, and tastings. Also: Paula Deen.

Southern Foodways Symposium

When: October 23—26
Where: Oxford, Mississippi
What: The theme of this year's 17th annual Southern Foodways Symposium is "Who is Welcome at the Welcome Table? There will be panels, talks, films, food cooked in cast iron, and probably whiskey at the sold-out event.

Life Is Beautiful Festival

When: October 24 - 26
Where: Las Vegas, NV
What: The Life Is Beautiful Festival "brings amazing music, world class food, iconic public speakers and phenomenal art together." The roster of well-known chefs include Scott Conant, Rick Moonen, Marc Forgione, Nancy Silverton, Spike Mendelsohn, and more. The event also features a stellar list of live performances from musicians like Kanye West, Outkast, The Roots, Arctic Monkeys, Skrillex, Lionel Richie, and The Flaming Lips.

Also in October:

· Latin Flavors, American Kitchen: Held at the Culinary Institute of America's San Antonio campus, the annual Latin Flavors, American Kitchen leadership symposium brings togethers chefs and experts for a three-day event on Latin cuisine and culture. (October 1-3)

· World Series of Barbecue: Now in its 35th year, the World Series of Barbecue features 550 teams competing in four meat categories. The four-day event — which also has live music and cooking demos — takes place in Kansas City. (October 2-5)

· What a Wonderful World Gathering: Australian chef Ben Shewry has put together an "anti-festival" in Melbourne that aims to be a "celebration and conversation" that inspires the food community and beyond. Chefs from around the world including Roy Choi, Daniel Patterson, Bo Songvisava, and Margot Henderson are all participating. There will also be a lunch cooked by 30 chefs to benefit underprivileged children. (October 4-5)

· Identità New York: The event returns for its fifth year, and as in the past, it will feature chefs, both Italian and American, cooking side by side at Italian grocery emporium Eataly in New York City. (October 9-12)

· La Jolla Art & Wine Festival: The sixth annual La Jolla Art & Wine Festival will feature a wine and beer garden featuring beer from local craft breweries and regional and international wines. There will also be artwork from local artists and a food court showcasing local restaurants. (October 11-12)

· Italian Food & Wine Festival: For its inaugural year in the Windy City, the three-day event will feature wine and food from Italy through a series of events like a four-course meal cooked by chefs Ugo Alciati and Davide Oldani at the recently opened Eataly Chicago. (October 14-16)

· James Beard Foundation Food Conference: This year's conference will tackle the question of Health & Food: Is Better Food the Prescription for a Healthier America? Writers Mark Bittman and Michael Pollan will serve as panelists. (October 27-28)

· International Chefs Congress: The ninth annual International Chefs Congress is centered around the theme "Cooking Honest: The Power of Authenticity in the Kitchen." Big name chefs like Dan Barber, Grant Achatz, Enrique Olvera, and George Mendes will all be on hand in New York City to lead workshops, seminars, demonstrations, and panels. (October 26-28)

· Bid Against Hunger: City Harvest's massive fundraiser in New York City is celebrating its 20th year and will feature bites from over 70 restaurants in the city including Betony, Dirt Candy, French Louie, and The Gander. (October 29)


John T. Edge, Anne Quatrano at Music to Your Mouth 2013 [Photo: Music to Your Mouth/Facebook]

Semana Mesa SP

When: November 3 - 5
Where: Sao Paulo, Brazil
What: For its 11th year, Semana Mesa SP will focus on (translated) the "essential connection" between "the family, farmer, and kitchen." Influential local chefs like Alex Atala, Rodrigo Oliveira, and Claude Troisgros, plus many others will all present at what is one of the world's largest food festivals. There will also be large dinners at the city's top restaurants.

New York Taste

When: November 10
Where: New York City
What: New York magazine's annual New York Taste returns this year with over 40 restaurants and mixology bars. The one-night only event includes bites from chefs like Einat Admony, Paul Liebrandt, Dale Talde, Masaharu Morimoto, and Marcus Samuelsson.

Capital Food Fight

When: November 11
Where: Washington, DC
What: Capital Food Fight, which benefits DC Central Kitchens, features tastes from 75 local restaurants including Zentan, Eat The Rich, and Lincoln. Anthony Bourdain and The Chew's Carla Hall will host a live competition between local chefs in the style of Iron Chef that will be judged by Ted Allen, David Guas, and Christina Tosi.

Music to Your Mouth

When: November 18 - 23
Where: Palmetto Bluff, South Carolina
What: An oyster roast, a 5K (that ends with a Bloody Mary), and a wine and cheese tasting on an antique yacht are just a small portion of events at this year's Music to Your Mouth festival. There will also be dinner cooked by five James Beard award winning chefs and cooking classes with writer John T. Edge. The chef line-up includes Southern heavyweights John Currence, Ashley Christensen, Jeremiah Bacon.

Also in November:

· James Beard Foundation Gala: This year's gala will pay tribute to chef Charlier Trotter who passed away late last year. Friends and colleagues of Trotter like Emeril Lagasse and Norman Van Aken will celebrate their mentor through multi-course dinner in New York City. (November 14)

· BBC GoodFood Show: The three-day event in London from the BBC boasts a line-up of the UK's top chefs and culinary experts include chefs like Michel Roux Jr., Phil Fanning, and Tom Kerridge. The first day will feature the World Cheese awards which attracted over 2,700 entries last year. (November 14-16)

· Barbados Food & Wine and Rum Festival: The Barbados Food & Wine and Rm Festival hasn't announced this year's line-up yet but last year chefs like Marcus Samuelsson and Jose Garces were all there. As in past years, attendees can expect cooking demos, wine seminars, and rum events. (November 20-23)

· San Diego Bay Wine & Food Festival: The 11th annual San Diego Bay Wine & Food Festival will feature local chefs like Ivan Flowers, Abe Botello, and Brian Bonney alongside chefs like Nate Appleman, Brian Malarkey, and Gale Gand from across the country. Attendees can expect classes, many wine events including tastings and auctions, and a celebrity chef dinner. (November 16-23)

· Denver International Wine Festival: The three-day event will include a Grand Tasting that will showcase over 400 wines, spirits, and beers from around the world, Wine-lovers will be able to attend various seminars and a champagne tribute luncheon to Julia Child at this year's Denver International Wine Festival. (November 20-22)

· Flavor! Napa Valley: This year's roster of attendees includes chefs like Dean Fearing, Larry Forgione, Rocco DiSpirito, and Michael Chiarello. The festival benefits the CIA and features dinners, a cheese making class, and a blind wine tasting class. (November 19-23)

· Good Food Month: The Age Good Food Month will feature pop-up dinners, parties, and cooking classes as well as events with chefs like Yotam Ottolenghi. Most impressively, there will be two weeks of Night Noodle Markets, an Asian hawker-style market with over 25 food stalls on the banks of the Yarra River in Melbourne. A similar month will take place in Sydney in October. (November)

· The Emporiyum: The line-up for the two-day pop-up artisan food market in Washington, D.C. includes chefs like Paul Qui and Bryan Voltaggio, plus the likes of Momofuku Milk Bar, Black Seed Bagels, and Mast Brothers Chocolate. (November 15-16)


Jubilee 2013 [Photo: Official Site]


When: December 5-7
Where: Charleston, SC
What: Garden & Gun's Jubilee returns to Charleston for its second year and with it comes an afternoon quail hunt, an oyster roast, book signings, and plenty of shopping. Chefs Mike Lata, John Fleer, and Ashley Christensen will all host the Jubilee Field Feast on the final night which promises "incredible food, drink, and music." Other big names in attendance include the teams behind Butcher & Bee, Prince's Hot Chicken, and Rappahannock Oyster Co.

Twelve Days of Christmas

When: December 5-20
Where: Napa Valley, CA
What: For its seventh annual Twelve Days of Christmas celebration, Christopher Kostow and the Restaurant at Meadowood have invited a slew of internationally recognized chefs to come cook dinners. The roster includes chefs like Matthew Orlando, Kobe Desramaults, Grant Achatz, Ignacio Mattos, Esben Holmboe Bang, and Corey Lee. Each night's dinner will also be in collaboration with a vintner.

Also in December:

· Valley Forge Beer Festival: The annual Valley Forge Beer Festival in Pennsylvania promises a line-up featuring over 100 beers from more than 50 breweries from around the globe. Last year's roster included craft breweries like Victory, Boxcar Brewing Co, and Tommyknocker Brewery. (December 6)

· Indio International Tamale Festival: The city of Indio, California has been hosting the tamale festival since 1992 and it features beer gardens, a parade, live Mariachi music, over 150 vendors, and many, many tamales. (December 6-7)


Native Americans origins: American cuisine before 1600 Edit

Nearly all regions and subregions of the present day cuisine have roots in the foodways of Native Americans, whom lived in tribes numbering in their thousands. Prior to 1600, native peoples lived off the land in very diverse bioregions and had done so for thousands of years, often living a nomadic life where their diet changed with the season.

Many practiced a form of agriculture revolving around the Three Sisters, the rotation of beans, maize, and squash as staples of their diet in the East, this was documented as early as the 1620s in Of Plimoth Plantation, evidenced by the pages William Bradford wrote regarding Squanto: he showed them the traditional regional method of burying a fish or eel in a mound with seeds for maize to improve the soil this itself is also part of the widely practiced phenomenon of companion planting. [1] [2]

Other tribes across the land were practicing an iteration of using the same three staples, evidenced by 100 years of archaeological investigations in every region.

Wild game was equally a staple of nearly every tribe: generally speaking, deer, elk, and bison were staples as were rabbits and hare of every kind. The Cherokee of the Southern Appalachians used blowguns made of an indigenous type of bamboo to hunt squirrels. [3]

Northern tribes like the Ojibwe of what is now the state of Michigan and the peoples of the Wabanaki of what is now the state of Maine would stalk and hunt moose, whereas their Southern counterparts, like the Choctaw or Catawba, hunted snapping turtles and other testudines, [4] [5] possums, [6] [7] and young alligators [8] in the subtropical swamps of Louisiana and South Carolina.

Many tribes would preserve their meat in the form of pemmican, needed greatly on long journeys or to survive harsh winters.

Fish and Crustaceans Edit

As with hunted game, the biome in which one lived often dictated what was available to catch. For example, the Apache and Navajo peoples of the Southwest, whose territories each would have included swathes of New Mexico and Arizona, generally do not eat fish because in both cultures it's taboo, as well as often inconvenient.

The Navajo believe that fish have a part in the story of creation, [9] the Apache were in general afraid of water since they associated it with thunder, [10] and the arid desert climate made fish a rarity. [11]

However, in the culture of the Lenape, the tribe that originally lived in New Jersey, on the Delaware River, and the area that now comprises New York City, fish and shellfish were a staple in their diet and it was such a revered part of the culture that there is a documented and still practiced harvest dance called the Fish Dance. [12]

Originally it would have been done to celebrate the bringing in of fish from places like the Delaware or Raritan River or even the estuary around Manhattan Island and the completion of smoking them as a source of food for the long winter ahead. [13]

Eastern tribes would have eaten cod, [14] [15] particularly groups that spoke the Algonquian languages of New England as far south as present day Connecticut, winter flounder [16] and other flatfish, [17] species of herring like the alewife, [18] shad, [19] Atlantic herring, and Atlantic menhaden, [20] [21] They also would have consumed the Atlantic sturgeon [22] and drum.

In the West, Pacific several species of sturgeon, like the white sturgeon [23] and green sturgeon, [24] olachen [25] and several autochthonal fish of the Oncorhynchus family including the rainbow trout, [26] cutthroat trout, [27] coho salmon, [28] [29] [30] kokanee salmon, [31] and chinook salmon. The last makes an appearance in the accounts of Lewis and Clark as being fished for in the Columbia River Basin, and this specific species is named for a family of tribes of the Pacific Northwest, indicating very strongly its important role in that specific food culture.

Pacific gray whales and humpbacks were hunted by American Indians off the Northwest coast, especially by the Makah, and used for their meat and oil. [32] Catfish was also popular among native people throughout the land, over many types of terrain.

Crustaceans included shrimp, lobster, crayfish, and dungeness crabs in the Northwest and shrimp, lobster and blue crabs in the East. Other shellfish include abalone and geoduck on the West Coast, while on the East Coast the surf clam, quahog, and the soft-shell clam. Oysters were eaten on both shores, as were mussels and periwinkles. [33]

Cooking methods Edit

Early American Natives used a number of cooking methods in early American Cuisine that have been blended with early European cooking methods to form the basis of American Cuisine. Grilling meats was common. Spit roasting over a pit fire was common as well. Vegetables, especially root vegetables, were often cooked directly in the ashes of the fire.

As early Native Americans lacked pottery that could be used directly over a fire, they developed a technique causing many anthropologists to call them "stone boilers". They heated rocks in a fire, then added the rocks to a pot filled with water until it came to a boil to cook the meat or vegetables.

In what is now the Southwestern United States, they also created adobe ovens, dubbed hornos by the Spanish, to bake products such as cornmeal bread. Other parts of America dug pit ovens, which were also used to steam foods by adding heated rocks or embers.

One example performed extensively by New England tribes was adding seaweed or corn husks on top of the layers of stones to steam fish and shellfish as well as vegetables.

A later addition was potatoes, a garden plant that came to New England by the 18th century, added while still in skin with corn while in-husk, later to be referred to as a clambake by colonists. [34]

Colonial period Edit

When European colonists came to Virginia, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and any of the other English colonies on the eastern seaboard of North America, their initial attempts at survival included planting crops familiar to them from back home in England. In the same way, they farmed animals for clothing and meat.

Through hardships and eventual establishment of trade with England, the West Indies and other regions, the colonists were able to derive a cuisine similar to what they had previously consumed in Britain and Ireland, while also introducing local animals and plants to their diet.

American colonists followed along the line of British cookery up until the Revolution, when a desire to distinguish themselves from Britain led Americans to create "American" styles of cookery. [35]

In 1796, the first American cookbook was published, and others followed. [36] There was a general disdain for French cookery, even with French Huguenot settlers in South Carolina and French-Canadian emigrants in America. One of the cookbooks that proliferated in the colonies was The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy (1747) by Hannah Glasse, who referred to "the blind folly of this age that would rather be imposed on by a French booby, than give encouragement to a good English cook!" Of the French recipes given in the text, she speaks out flagrantly against the dishes as she ". think[s] it an odd jumble of trash." [37]

The expulsion of the Acadians from Acadia led many of them to Louisiana, where they left a French influence in the diet of those settled in Louisiana, and among the Acadian Francophones who settled eastern Maine and parts of what is now northern Vermont at the same time they colonized New Brunswick. [38]

Some of the Jews who fled from the Inquisition with other Sephardic Jews in the 15th century had previously settled in Recife, Brazil and the West Indies, where their cuisine was influenced by new local ingredients like molasses, rum, sugar, vanilla, chocolate, peppers, corn, tomatoes, kidney beans, string beans and turkey.

In 1654, twenty three Sephardic Jews arrived in New Amsterdam bringing this cuisine with them to the early colonial United States. Early American Jewish cuisine was heavily influenced by this branch of Sephardic cuisine. Many of the recipes were bound up in observance of traditional holidays and remained true to their origins. These included dishes such as stew and fish fried in olive oil, beef and bean stews, almond puddings, and egg custards.

The first kosher cookbook in America was the Jewish Cookery Book by Esther Levy, published in 1871 in Philadelphia and includes many of the traditional recipes. [39]

Common ingredients Edit

The American colonial diet varied depending on the settled region in which someone lived. Local cuisine patterns had established by the mid-18th century. The New England colonies were extremely similar in their dietary habits to those that many of them had brought from England.

A striking difference for the colonists in New England compared to other regions was seasonality. [40] While in the southern colonies, they could farm almost year-round, in the northern colonies, the growing seasons were very restricted. In addition, northern colonists' close proximity to the ocean gave them a bounty of fresh fish to add to their diet.

Wheat, the grain used to bake bread back in England, was almost impossible to grow, and imports of wheat were far from cost productive. [41] [ dubious – discuss ] Substitutes in cases such as this included cornmeal. The Johnnycake was a poor substitute to some for wheaten bread, but acceptance by both the northern and southern colonies seems evident. [42]

As many of the New Englanders were originally from England, game hunting was useful when they immigrated to the New World. Many of the northern colonists depended upon their ability to hunt, or upon others from whom they could purchase game. Hunting was the preferred method of protein consumption, as opposed to animal husbandry, which required much more work to defend the kept animals against raids. [ citation needed ]

Livestock and game Edit

Commonly hunted game included deer, bear, buffalo, and wild turkey. The larger muscles of the animals were roasted and served with currant sauce, while the other smaller portions went into soups, stews, sausages, pies, and pastries. [43] In addition to game, colonists' protein intake was supplemented by mutton.

The Spanish in Florida originally introduced sheep to the New World, but this development never quite reached the North, and there they were introduced by the Dutch and English. The keeping of sheep was a result of the English non-practice of animal husbandry. [44] The animals provided wool when young and mutton upon maturity after wool production was no longer desirable. [45] The forage-based diet for sheep that prevailed in the Colonies produced a characteristically strong, gamy flavor and a tougher consistency, which required aging and slow cooking to tenderize. [46]

Fats and oils Edit

Fats and oils made from animals served to cook many colonial foods. Many homes had a sack made of deerskin filled with bear oil for cooking, while solidified bear fat resembled shortening.

Rendered pork fat made the most popular cooking medium, especially from the cooking of bacon. Pork fat was used more often in the southern colonies than the northern colonies as the Spanish introduced pigs earlier to the South. The colonists enjoyed butter in cooking as well, but it was rare prior to the American Revolution, as cattle were not yet plentiful. [47]

Alcoholic drinks Edit

Prior to the Revolution, New Englanders consumed large quantities of rum and beer, as maritime trade provided them relatively easy access to the goods needed to produce these items. Rum was the distilled spirit of choice, as the main ingredient, molasses, was readily available from trade with the West Indies.

Further into the interior, however, one would often find colonists consuming whiskey, as they did not have similar access to sugar cane. They did have ready access to corn and rye, which they used to produce their whiskey. [48]

Until the Revolution, many considered whiskey to be a coarse alcohol unfit for human consumption, as many believed that it caused the poor to become raucous and unkempt drunkards. [49] In addition to these alcohol-based products produced in America, imports were seen on merchant shelves, including wine and brandy. [50]

Southern variations Edit

In comparison to the northern colonies, the southern colonies were quite diverse in their agricultural diet. The uplands of the Piedmont and the coastal lowlands made up the two main parts of the southern colonies.

The diet of the uplands often included wild game, cabbage, string beans, corn, squashes and white potatoes. People had biscuits as part of their breakfast, along with healthy portions of pork. [51] The lowlands of Louisiana included a varied diet heavily influenced by the French, Spanish, Acadians, Germans, Native Americans, Africans and Caribbeans. Rice played a large part of the diet in Louisiana. In addition, unlike the uplands, the lowlands subsistence of protein came mostly from coastal seafood. Much of the diet involved the use of peppers, as it still does to this day. [52] [53]

Post-colonial cuisine Edit

During the 18th and 19th centuries, Americans developed many new foods. Some, such as Rocky Mountain oysters, stayed regional some spread throughout the nation but with little international appeal, such as peanut butter (a core ingredient of the peanut butter and jelly sandwich) and some spread throughout the world, such as popcorn, cola, fried chicken, cornbread, unleavened muffins such as the poppyseed muffin, and brownies.

Nineteenth-century American farmhouse Edit

During the 1800s, American farms were mostly self-sufficient but, certain staples like salt, coffee, sugar and baking soda would be purchased at the town general store. If the family didn't grow wheat, then flour would also be purchased.

Another luxury was canned salmon, which was sometimes eaten for Sunday dinner. Items purchased at the general store would be paid for with eggs, butter or some other food from the farm.

Women were responsible for much of the processing of food like straining fresh milk, churning butter, making molasses from sorghum, grinding corn into cornmeal or cleaning whole chickens.

Fresh picked apples were pressed into cider, which could be fermented to make apple cider vinegar. Fruits and vegetables were preserved by various means like canning, drying or pickling.

One contemporary writer from Michigan described October as cider season, when apple butter would be made. Her writings mention johnnycakes, and, as winter fare, buckwheat cakes. [54]

Typical farmhouse fare included fried chicken, simmered green beans, boiled corn, chicken and dumplings, fried ham, boiled beans and beets, stewed tomatoes, potatoes, and coleslaw made of shredded cabbage. Pon haus, similar to the scrapple of the Pennsylvania Dutch, was a typical breakfast dish among the Germans who had settled Indiana in the 19th century.

Pork scraps and corn meal were cooked into a thick porridge and molded in loaf pans. Once solidified, the mixture would be cut and fried. During the fall months, pork might be replaced with fried apples or potatoes. It was served with buttered biscuits, jam, jelly, milk gravy or sorghum syrup. Fruit butter might be made from apples, plums or peaches to accompany the meal. [54]

Twentieth Century Edit

Pork was a staple of the rural diet through the Southern and Midwestern United States. Lard was used for baking, frying and even as a seasoning.

The cookware of the period was made of cast iron and these were thoroughly seasoned with pork fat. Fried salt pork with gravy was an indulgent fat-laden dish often served with a side of boiled potatoes. In the Appalachian region a dish called "killed lettuce" was made with pokeweed, dandelion and assorted wild greens that were drizzled with hot bacon grease until wilted or "killed". [54]

Pie could be served up to three times a day and many varieties were prepared depending on the season. During the spring months, pies would be made of rhubarb and strawberry in summer peach, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, elderberry and grape and in fall apple. [54]

The staples of the urban diet were bread, dairy and canned goods. Dinner might be tomato bisque from a can topped with cream or a salad made of canned string beans and mayonnaise. Many preferred to purchase food at delicatessens, rather than attempt to prepare meals in the cramped kitchenettes.

German delicatessens in cities like New York and Milwaukee sold imported cold cuts, potato salads, schmierkase, wienerwurst, North Sea herring, assorted pickles (pickled cucumber) and other prepared foods.

Jewish immigrants from Germany soon followed suit, replacing pork dishes with corned beef (salt-cured beef) and pastrami. Ice cream soda was served at soda fountains, along with various other early "soda water" recipes like the Garden Sass Sundae (rhubarb) or the Oh-Oh-Cindy Sundae (strawberry ice cream topped with chocolate syrup, chopped nuts, whipped cream and candied cherries). [54]

During that same time frame, grain-feeding of cattle during low pasture months made milk increasingly available year-round. The invention of milking machines lowered production costs. Pasteurization, homogenization, evaporation, condensation, and refrigeration along with glass milk bottles, wax-paper cartons, and then plastic bottles made milk increasingly available and safe for urban consumers. [55]

Milk became a staple food item and an increasingly important ingredient in American cuisine. Examples include the root beer float and the milkshake.

Major railroads featured upscale cuisine in their dining cars. [56] Restaurant chains emerged with standardized decor and menus, including the Fred Harvey restaurants along the route of the Sante Fe Railroad in the Southwest. [57]

Fast-food restaurants with standardized product and franchised service models began to appear and spread with the development of the highway system. White Castle (1916) was one of the first examples. Franchising was introduced in 1921 by A&W Root Beer. The McDonald brothers created their "Speedee Service System" in 1948. Other examples include Burger King, KFC, Wendy's, Pizza Hut, Little Caesars, Domino's Pizza and Papa John's Pizza. [ citation needed ]

At the universities, nutritionists and home economists taught a new scientific approach to food. In the early 1900s muckraking journalists raised public concern about the wholesomeness of industrialized food products that contained various preservatives and adulterants of unknown safety.

From 1902 to 1912 Harvey Washington Wiley, a chemist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, supervised "hygienic table trials" to test the safety of food additives and preservatives. His work contributed to the enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. He became the first commissioner of the FDA and later led the laboratories of Good Housekeeping Magazine. [ citation needed ]

During World War I the Progressives' moral advice about food conservation was emphasized in large-scale state and federal programs designed to educate housewives. Large-scale foreign aid during and after the war brought American standards to Europe. [58]

From 1912 to the end of the 1930s researchers discovered and popularized the role of various vitamins and minerals in human health. Starting with iodized salt in 1924, commercially distributed food began to be fortified with vitamins and minerals. In 1932, milk began to be fortified with viosterol, a purified vitamin D2 product. Synthetic thiamin (vitamin B1) first became available after 1936 and bakers began voluntarily enriching bread with high-vitamin yeast or synthetic vitamins in the late 1930s.

The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science established the first set of "Recommended Dietary Allowances" in 1941. In 1943, the US War Foods Administration issued the War Food Order No. 1, which made enriched bread the temporary law of the land. [59]

In 1945 George Stigler published an article on "The cost of subsistence" which described the so-called Stigler diet, his solution to the problem of providing a diet that met the RDA at a minimum cost.

The logistical requirements of the US military during WW2 and the Korean War spurred the development and growth of the processed foods industry in the US. [60] These wars encouraged production of shelf-stable ingredients processed on a vast industrial scale. Examples include powdered milk, powdered eggs, potato flakes, and frozen concentrated orange juice.

After the war, low-cost, highly processed foods became one of the foundational elements of an era of mass prosperity. [61] Many companies in the American food industry developed new products requiring minimal preparation, such as frozen entrees. [62] One such example is the TV dinner in which a multi-course meal was assembled in aluminum packaging in a food factory and flash frozen, then reheated at home in a thermal oven to be served while watching TV. [63] Convenience foods of the era were designed to simplify home preparation.

One example is macaroni & cheese created using a powdered artificial cheese product that is reconstituted at home with fresh milk. Newspapers and magazines ran recipe columns, aided by research from corporate kitchens, which were major food manufacturers like General Mills, Campbell's, and Kraft Foods. For example, the General Mills Betty Crocker's Cookbook, first published in 1950, was a popular book in American homes. [64] [65]

Highly processed foods of the mid-20th century included novelty elements like multi-colored Jell-O using various chemical food colorings, prepared breakfast cereals marketed to children with large amounts of sugar and artificial colors (e.g. Froot Loops). [66] Fruit-flavored punches made with artificial fruit flavorings (e.g. Tang, Hi-C). Mid-20th-century foods also added novelty packaging elements like spray cheese in an aerosol can, pimento-stuffed olives, and drink pouches.

The development of the microwave oven resulted in the creation of industrial food products and packaging intended to take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the unique challenges of that technology. [67] Microwave popcorn is an example of such a product.

Throughout the second half of the 20th century the US commercial food system has become increasingly dependent on subsidized maize (corn) production to provide feed for livestock and ingredients for human foods such as high-fructose corn syrup. [68] It is estimated that the typical American gets 70 percent of his/her carbon intake from maize (corn) sources. [69]

The last half of the 20th century saw the development of controversial technological innovations intended to lower the cost of, improve the quality of, or increase the safety of commercial food including: food irradiation, [70] genetically modified organisms, livestock treated with antibiotics/hormones, and concentrated animal feeding operations. Activists have raised concerns about the wholesomeness, safety, or humaneness of these innovations and recommend alternatives such as organic produce, veganism/vegetarianism, and locavore diets.

Ethnic influences Edit

One signature characteristic of American cooking is the fusion of multiple ethnic or regional approaches into completely new cooking styles. For example, spaghetti is Italian, while hot dogs are German a popular meal, especially among young children, is spaghetti containing slices of hot dogs. [71] [72] Since the 1960s Asian cooking has played a particularly large role in American fusion cuisine. [73]

Some dishes that are typically considered American have their origins in other countries. American cooks and chefs have substantially altered these dishes over the years, to the degree that the dishes now enjoyed around the world are considered to be American. Hot dogs and hamburgers are both based on traditional German dishes, but in their modern popular form they can be reasonably considered American dishes. [74]

Pizza is based on the traditional Italian dish, brought by Italian immigrants to the United States, but varies highly in style based on the region of development since its arrival. For example, Chicago style has focus on a thicker, taller crust, whereas a "New York Slice" is known to have a much thinner crust which can be folded. These different types of pizza can be advertised throughout the country and are generally recognizable and well-known, with some restaurants going so far as to import New York tap water from a thousand or more miles away to recreate the signature style in other regions. [75]

Some dishes that Americans think of as being of "foreign" in origin and/or associated with a particular immigrant group were in fact invented in America and customized to American tastes. For example General Tso's chicken was invented by Chinese or Taiwanese chefs working in New York in the early 1970s. [76] The dish is unknown in China, except for a distant resemblance to a much spicier dish from Hong Kong said to have influenced the American version. The fortune cookie was likewise invented in California in the early 1900s and is known in Asia only as an American style food. [77]

A wave of celebrity chefs began with Julia Child and Graham Kerr in the 1970s, with many more following after the rise of cable channels like Food Network. By the beginning of the 21st century, regional variations in consumption of meat began to reduce, as more meat was consumed overall. [78] Saying they eat too much protein, the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans asked men and teenage boys to increase their consumption of underconsumed foods such as vegetables. [79]

New American Edit

During the 1980s, upscale restaurants introduced a mixing of cuisines that contain Americanized styles of cooking with foreign elements commonly referred as New American cuisine, [80] a type of fusion cuisine combining flavors from the melting pot of traditional American cooking techniques with those from other cultures, sometimes adding molecular gastronomy components. [81] [82]

In the present day, the modern cuisine of the United States is very regional in nature. Excluding Alaska and Hawaii, the terrain spans 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from east to west and more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from north to south.

Northeast Edit

New England Edit

New England is a Northeastern region of the United States bordering the Maritime Provinces of Canada and portions of Quebec in the north. It includes the six states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont, with its largest city and cultural capital Boston, founded in 1630.

Native American cuisine became part of the cookery style that the early colonists brought with them. Tribes like the Nipmuck, Wampanoag, Passamaquoddy and other Algonquian cultures were noted for slashing and burning areas to create meadows and bogs that would attract animals like moose and deer, but also encourage the growth of plants like black raspberries, blueberries, and cranberries. [83]

In the forest they would have collected nuts of species like the shagbark hickory, American hazel, and American chestnuts and fruits like wild grapes and black cherries. [84] The Wabanaki tribal nations and other eastern woodlands peoples have made nut milk and infant formula made from nuts and cornmeal. [85] [86] [87]

All of these eventually showed up in the kitchens of colonial New England women [88] and many were sent back to England and other portions of Europe to be catalogued by scientists, collectors, and horticulturalists.

The style of New England cookery originated from its colonial roots, that is to say practical, frugal, and willing to eat anything other than what they were used to from what they previously consumed in England. [89]

Most of the initial colonists came from East Anglia in England, with other groups following them over the ages like francophone regions of Canada (this was especially true of Northern New England, where there are still many speakers of a dialect of French), from Ireland, from Southern Italy, and most recently from Haiti, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Portugal. The oldest forms of the cuisine date to the early 17th century and in the case of Massachusetts, out of the entire country only the state of Virginia can claim recipes that are older.

East Anglian cookery would have included recipes for dishes like suet puddings, wheaten breads, and a few shellfish delicacies, like winkles, and would have been at the time of settlement simple Puritan fare quite in contrast to the fineries and excesses expected in London cavalier circles. Most of the cuisine started with one-pot cookery, which resulted in such dishes as succotash, chowder, baked beans, and others. [90]

Starches are fairly simple, and typically encompass just a handful of classics like potatoes and cornmeal, and a few native breads like Anadama bread, johnnycakes, bulkie rolls, Parker house rolls, popovers, ployes, and New England brown bread.

New England has a long history of vegetarianism and persons eating frugal meals made of starches and vegetables such as hasty pudding, baked beans, and brown bread. Famous vegetarian New England persons include Johnny Appleseed, Sylvester Graham, Amos Bronson Alcott, William Alcott, Jeremiah Hacker, and Helen Nearing.

This region is fairly conservative with its spices, but typical spices include nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, and allspice, especially in desserts, and for savory foods, thyme, black pepper, sea salt, and sage. Typical condiments include maple syrup, grown from the native sugar maple, molasses, and cranberry sauce.

The fruits of the region include the Vitis labrusca grapes used in grape juice made by companies such as Welch's, along with jelly, Kosher wine by companies like Mogen David and Manischewitz along with other wineries that make higher quality wines.

Though not anywhere near as productive a region as the top three apple-producing regions, apples have been a staple of New England foodways since at least the 1640s, and it is here that a very high amount of heirloom varieties are found, many of them gaining renewed interest as part of locavore movements and the re-emergence of cider as a beverage of choice.

Apples from New England would include varieties imported from their earliest in Europe and a few natives, like Baldwin, Lady, Mother, Pomme Grise, Porter, Roxbury Russet, Rhode Island Greening, Sops of Wine, Hightop Sweet, Peck's Pleasant, Titus Pippin, Westfield-Seek-No-Further, and Duchess of Oldenburg.

Historically New England and the other original 13 colonies were major producers of hard cider and the only reason why this changed were that immigrants from Western and Central Europe preferred beer, especially lagers, to apple based alcohol.

In more recent years cider has made a roaring comeback nationwide, with New England being the first to break out of the box and with many pomologists scouring the woods for abandoned apple trees and heirloom varieties to add to the cider press. Angry Orchard is a local commercial brand that began in New Hampshire but has since skyrocketed in sales, with other large marques following suit around the land. [91]

Beach plums a small native species with fruits the size of a pinball, are sought after in summer to make into a jam. Cranberries are another fruit indigenous to the region, often collected in autumn in huge flooded bogs. Thereafter they are juiced so they can be drunk fresh for breakfast, or dried and incorporated into salads and quickbreads. [92]

Winter squashes like pumpkin and butternut squashes have been a staple for generations owing to their ability to keep for long periods over icy New England winters and being an excellent source of beta carotene in summer, they are replaced with pattypan and zucchini, the latter brought to the region by immigrants from Southern Italy a century ago.

Blueberries are a very common summertime treat owing to them being an important crop, and find their way into muffins, pies and pancakes.

Typical favorite desserts are quite diverse, and encompass hasty pudding, blueberry pie, whoopie pies, Boston cream pie, pumpkin pie, Joe Frogger cookies, hand-crafted ice cream, Hermit cookies, and the chocolate chip cookie, invented in Massachusetts in the 1930s.

New England is noted for having a heavy emphasis on seafood, a legacy inherited from coastal tribes like the Wampanoag and Narragansett, who equally used the rich fishing banks offshore for sustenance. Favorite fish include cod, salmon, winter flounder, haddock, striped bass, pollock, hake, bluefish, and, in southern New England, tautog. All of these are prepared numerous ways, such as frying cod for fish fingers, grilling bluefish over hot coals for summertime, smoking salmon or serving a whole poached one chilled for feasts with a dill sauce, or, on cold winter nights, serving haddock baked in casserole dish with a creamy sauce and crumbled breadcrumbs as a top so it forms a crust. [93]

Clam cakes, a savory fritter based on chopped clams, are a specialty of Rhode Island. Farther inland, brook trout, largemouth bass, and herring are sought after, especially in the rivers and icy finger lakes in upper New England where New Englanders will fly fish for them in summertime.

Meat is present though not as prominent, and typically is either stewed in dishes like Yankee pot roast and New England boiled dinner or braised, as in a picnic ham these dishes suit the weather better as summers are humid and hot but winters are raw and cold, getting below 0 °C for most of the winter and only just above it by March. [94]

The roasting of whole turkeys began here as a centerpiece for large American banquets, and like all other East Coast tribes, the Native American tribes of New England prized wild turkeys as a source of sustenance and later Anglophone settlers were enamored of cooking them using methods they knew from Europe: often that meant trussing the bird and spinning it on a string or spit roasting.

Today turkey meat is a key ingredient in soups, and also a favorite in several sandwiches like the Pilgrim. For lunch, hot roast beef is sometimes chopped finely into small pieces and put on a roll with salami and American or provolone cheese to make a steak bomb. [95] Bacon is often maple cured, and often bacon or salt pork drippings are an ingredient in corn chowder, a cousin of the clam chowder. [96] Veal consumption was prevalent in the North Atlantic States prior to World War II. [78]

A variety of linguiça is favored as a breakfast food, introduced by Portuguese fishermen and Brazilian immigrants. [97] In contrast with some parts of the United States, lamb (although less so mutton or goat) is a popular roasted or grilled meat across diverse groups in New England.

Dairy farming and its resultant products figure strongly on the ingredient list, and homemade ice cream is a summertime staple of the region: it was a small seasonal roadside stand in Vermont that eventually became the internationally famous Ben and Jerry's ice cream.

Vermont is known for producing farmhouse style cheeses, especially a type of cheddar. [98] The recipe goes all the way back to colonial times when English settlers brought the recipe with them from England and found the rocky landscape eminently suitable to making the cheese. [99] Today Vermont has more artisanal cheese makers per capita than any other state, and diversity is such that interest in goat's milk cheeses has become prominent. [100]

Crustaceans and mollusks are also an essential ingredient in the regional cookery. Maine and Massachusetts, in more recent years, have taken to harvesting peekytoe crab and Jonah crab and making crab bisques, based on cream with 35% milkfat, and crabcakes out of them: often these were overlooked as bycatch of lobster pots by fishermen of the region, but in the past 30 years their popularity has firmly established them as a staple They even appear on the menu as far south as to be out of region in New York, where they are sold to four star restaurants in the form of cocktail claws.

Squid are heavily fished for and eaten as fried calamari, and often are an ingredient in Italian American cooking in this region. Whelks are eaten in salad, and lobster, which is indigenous to the coastal waters of the region and are a feature of many dishes, baked, boiled, roasted, and steamed, or simply eaten as a sandwich, chilled with mayonnaise and chopped celery in Maine and Massachusetts, or slathered with melted butter on Long Island and in Connecticut.

Shellfish of all sorts are part of the diet, and shellfish of the coastal regions include little neck clams, sea scallops, blue mussels, oysters, soft shell clams, and razor shell clams. Much of this shellfish contributes to New England tradition, the clambake. The clambake as known today is a colonial interpretation of an American Indian tradition. [101]

In summer, oysters and clams are dipped in batter and fried, often served in a basket with french fries, or commonly on a wheaten bun as a clam roll. Oysters are otherwise eaten chilled on a bed of crushed ice on the half shell with mignonette sauce, and are often branded on where they were harvested. Large quahogs are stuffed with breadcrumbs and seasoning and baked in their shells, and smaller ones often find their way into clam chowder. Other preparations include clams casino, clams on the half shell served stuffed with herbs like oregano and streaky bacon.

Southern New England, particularly along the coast, shares many specialties with the Mid-Atlantic, including especially dishes from Jewish and Italian-American cuisine.

Coastal Connecticut is known for distinctive kinds of pizza, locally called apizza (pronounced locally as abeetz), differing in texture (thin and slightly blackened) and toppings (such as clams) from pizza further south in the so-called pizza belt, which stretches from New Haven, Connecticut southward through New York, New Jersey, and into Maryland.

Delaware Valley and Mid-Atlantic Edit

The mid-Atlantic states comprise the states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Northern Maryland. The oldest major settlement in this area of the country is found in the most populous city in the nation, New York, founded in 1625 by the Dutch. Today, it is a major cultural capital of the United States. [102]

The influences on cuisine in this region are extremely eclectic owing to the fact that it has been and continues to be a gateway for international culture as well as a gateway for new immigrants. [103] Going back to colonial times, each new group has left their mark on homegrown cuisine and in turn the cities in this region disperse trends to the wider United States. In addition, cities like New York and Philadelphia have had the past influence of Dutch, [104] Italian, German, [105] Irish, [106] [107] British, [108] and Jewish cuisines, [109] and that continues to this day. Baltimore has become the crossroads between North and South, a distinction it has held since the end of the Civil War.

A global power city, [110] New York is well known for its diverse and cosmopolitan dining scene. [111] Its restaurants compete fiercely for good reviews in the Food and Dining section of The New York Times, online guides, and Zagat's, the last of which is widely considered the premier American dining guide, published yearly and headquartered in New York.

Many of the more complicated dishes with rich ingredients like Lobster Newberg, waldorf salad, vichyssoise, eggs benedict, and the New York strip steak were born out of a need to entertain and impress the well-to-do in expensive bygone restaurants like Delmonico's and still standing establishments like the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. [112] [113] Modern commercial American cream cheese was developed in 1872. [114]

Since the first reference to an alcoholic mixed drink called a cocktail comes from New York State in 1803, it is not a surprise that there have been many cocktails invented in New York and the surrounding environs. Even today New York bars are noted for being highly influential in making national trends. Cosmopolitans, Long Island iced teas, Manhattans, Rob Roys, Tom Collins, Aviations, and Greyhounds were all invented in New York bars, and the gin martini was popularized in New York in speakeasies during the 1920s, as evidenced by its appearance in the works of New Yorker and American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald. Like its neighbor Philadelphia, many rare and unusual liquors and liqueurs often find their way into a mixologist's cupboard or restaurant wine list.

New York State is the third most productive area in the country for wine grapes, just behind California and Washington. It has AVA's near the Finger Lakes, the Catskills, and Long Island, [115] and in the Hudson Valley has the second-most productive area in the country for growing apples, making it a center for hard cider production, just like New England. [116] [117] Pennsylvania has been growing rye since Germans began to emigrate to the area at the end of the 17th century and required a grain they knew from Germany. [118] Therefore, overall it is not unusual to find New York grown Gewürtztraminer and Riesling, Pennsylvania rye whiskey, or marques of locally produced ciders like Original Sin on the same menu.

Since their formative years, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore have welcomed immigrants of every kind to their shores, and all three have been an important gateway through which new citizens to the general United States arrive. [119] Traditionally natives have eaten cheek to jowl with newcomers for centuries as the newcomers would open new restaurants and small businesses and all the different groups would interact.

Even in colonial days this region was a very diverse mosaic of peoples, as settlers from Switzerland, Wales, England, Ulster, Wallonia, Holland, Gelderland, the British Channel Islands, and Sweden sought their fortune in this region. [120] [121] This is very evident in many signature dishes and local foods, all of which have evolved to become American dishes in their own right.

The original Dutch settlers of New York brought recipes they knew and understood from the Netherlands and their mark on local cuisine is still apparent today: in many quarters of New York their version of apple pie with a streusel top is still baked. In the colony of New Amsterdam, their predilection for waffles in time evolved into the American national recipe and forms part of a New York brunch. They also made coleslaw, originally a Dutch salad, but today accented with the later 18th-century introduction of mayonnaise. [104] [122] [123]

The doughnut began its life originally as a New York pastry that arrived in the 18th century as the Dutch olykoek, with later additions from other nations of Europe like the Italian zeppole, the Jewish/Polish pączki, and the German Berliner arriving in the 19th century to complete the variety found in modern doughnuts today. [124]

Crab cakes were once a kind of English croquette, but over time as spices have been added they and the Maryland crab feast became two of Baltimore's signature dishes. Fishing for blue crab is a favorite summer pastime in the waters off Maryland, New Jersey, and Delaware where they may grace the table at summer picnics.

Other mainstays of the region have been present since the early years of American history, like oysters from Cape May, the Chesapeake Bay, and Long Island, and lobster and tuna from the coastal waters found in New York and New Jersey. [125] [126] Philadelphia Pepper Pot, a tripe stew, was originally a British dish but today is a classic of home cooking in Pennsylvania alongside bookbinder soup, a type of turtle soup.

In the winter, New York pushcarts sell roasted chestnuts, a delicacy dating back to English Christmas traditions, [127] and it was in New York and Pennsylvania that the earliest Christmas cookies were introduced: Germans introduced crunchy molasses-based gingerbread and sugar cookies in Pennsylvania, and the Dutch introduced cinnamon-based cookies, all of which have become part of the traditional Christmas meal. [128] [129]

Scrapple was originally a type of savory pudding that early Pennsylvania Germans made to preserve the offal of a pig slaughter. [130] The Philadelphia soft pretzel was originally brought to Eastern Pennsylvania in the early 18th century, and later, 19th-century immigrants sold them to the masses from pushcarts to make them the city's best-known bread product, having evolved into its own unique recipe. [131]

After the 1820s, new groups began to arrive and the character of the region began to change. There had been some Irish from Ulster prior to 1820, however largely they had been Protestants with somewhat different culture and (often) a different language than the explosion of emigrants that came to Castle Garden and Locust Point in Baltimore in their masses starting in the 1840s.

The Irish arrived in America in a rather woeful state, as Ireland at the time was often plagued by some of the worst poverty in Europe and often heavy disenfranchisement among the masses. Many of them arrived barely alive having ridden coffin ships to the New World, very sick with typhus and gaunt from prolonged starvation.

In addition, they were the first to face challenges other groups did not have: they were the first large wave of Catholics. They faced prejudice for their faith and the cities of Philadelphia, New York, and Baltimore were not always set up for their needs.

For example, Catholic bishops in the U.S. mandated until the 1960s that all Catholics were forbidden from eating red meat on Fridays and during Lent, [132] and attending Mass sometimes conflicted with work as produce and meat markets would be open on high holy days this was difficult for Irishmen supporting families since many worked as laborers.

Unsurprisingly, many Irishmen also found their fortunes working as longshoremen, which would have given their families access to fish and shellfish whenever a fisherman made berth, which was frequent on the busy docks of Baltimore and New York. [133] [134]

Though there had been some activity in Baltimore in founding a see earlier by the Carrolls, the Irish were the first major wave of Catholic worship in this region, and that meant bishops and cardinals sending away to Europe for wine. Wine, with water, is consecrated as part of the Catholic Mass.

Taverns had existed prior to their emigration to America in the region, though the Irish brought their particular brand of pub culture and founded some of the first saloons and bars that served Dublin style stout and red ale they brought with them the knowledge of single-malt style whiskey and sold it.

The Irish were the first immigrant group to arrive in this region in massive millions, and these immigrants also founded some of the earliest saloons and bars in this region, of which McSorley's is a still operating example.

It was also in this region that the Irish introduced something that today is a very important festival in American culture that involves a large amount of food, drink, and merry making: Halloween. In England and Wales, where prior immigrants had come from, the feast of All Hallows Eve had died out in the Reformation, dismissed as superstition and excess having nothing to do with the Bible and often replaced with the festival of Guy Fawkes Night. Other immigrant groups like the Germans preferred to celebrate October 31 as Reformation Day, and after the American Revolution all of the above were less and less eager to celebrate the legacy of an English festival given they had fought against Great Britain for their independence.

The Catholicism of the Irish demanded attendance at church on November 1 and charity and deeds, not just faith, as a cornerstone of dogma, and many of their older traditions survived the Reformation and traveled with them. Naturally, they went door-to-door to collect victuals for masked parties as well as gave them out, like nuts to roast on the fire, whiskey, beer, or cider, and barmbracks they also bobbed for apples and made dumb cakes. Later in the century they were joined by Scots going guising, children going door-to-door to ask for sweets and treats in costume.

From the Mid-Atlantic this trend spread to be nationwide and evolved into American children trick-or-treating on October 31 wearing costumes and their older counterparts having wild costume parties with various foods and drinks such as caramel apples, candy apples, dirt cakes, punch, cocktails, cider (both alcoholic and non,) pumpkin pie, candy corn, chocolate turtles, peanut brittle, taffy, tipsy cake, and copious buckets full of candy children carving jack-o-lanterns and eating squash derived foods derive from Halloween's heritage as a harvest festival and from Irish and Scottish traditions of carving turnips and eating root vegetables at this time of year.

Bobbing for apples has survived to the present day as a Halloween party classic game, as has a variation on the parlor game of trying to grab an apple hanging from the ceiling blindfolded: [135] it has evolved into trying to catch a donut in one's teeth. [136]

Immigrants from Southern Europe, namely Sicily, Campania, Lazio, and Calabria, appeared between 1880 and 1960 in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Eastern Maryland hoping to escape the extreme poverty and corruption endemic to Italy.

Typically none of them spoke English, but rather dialects of Italian and had a culture that was more closely tied to the village they were born in than the high culture only accessible to those who could afford it at this time many could not read or write in any language.

They were employed in manual labor or factory work but it is because of them that dishes like spaghetti with meatballs, New York-style pizza, calzones, and baked ziti exist, and Americans of today are very familiar with semolina based pasta noodles.

Their native cuisine had less of an emphasis on meat, as evidenced by dishes they introduced like pasta e fagioli and minestrone, but the dishes they created in America often piled it on as a sign of wealth and newfound prosperity since for the first time even cheap cuts of it were affordable. The American recipe for lasagna is proof of this, as mostly it is derived from the Neapolitan version of the dish with large amounts of meat and cheese.

New York-style hot dogs came about with German-speaking emigrants from Austria and Germany, particularly with the frankfurter sausage and the smaller wiener sausage Jews would also contribute here by introducing the kosher version of these sausages, made of beef rather than pork. [137] Today, the New York-style hot dog with sauerkraut, mustard, and the optional cucumber pickle relish is such a part of the local fabric, that it is one of the favorite comestibles of New York and both the pork and the beef versions are beloved. Hot dogs are a typical street food sold year round in all but the most inclement weather from thousands of pushcarts.

As with all other stadiums in Major League Baseball they are an essential for New York Yankees and the New York Mets games though it is the local style of preparation that predominates without exception.

Hot dogs are also the focus of a televised eating contest on the Fourth of July in Coney Island, [138] at Nathan's Famous, one of the earliest hot dog stands opened in the United States in 1916 by Nathan Handwerker. Handwerker was a Jewish man who emigrated from what is now Ukraine in 1912 and whose influence is felt today around the world.

Coney Island is most famous for being a traditional boardwalk amusement park and the site of the world's first rollercoaster, a precursor of modern theme parks. Hot dogs are a staple of amusement parks 100 years later. [139]

A summertime treat, Italian ice, began its life as a sweeter adaptation of the Sicilian granita that was strictly lemon-flavored and brought to New York and Philadelphia. Its Hispanic counterpart, piragua, is a common shaved-ice treat brought to New York by Puerto Ricans in the 1930s. Unlike the original dish which included flavors like tamarind, mango, coconut, piragua is evolving to include flavors like grape and cherry, fruits which are impossible to grow in the tropical Puerto Rican climate and get exported back to the island from New York. [140]

Taylor Ham, a meat delicacy of New Jersey, first appeared around the time of the Civil War and today is often served for breakfast with eggs and cheese on a kaiser roll, a variant of a roll brought to the area by Austrians in the second half of the 19th century, now commonly used for sandwiches at lunchtime, often topped with poppyseeds. This breakfast meat is generally known as pork roll in southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, and Taylor Ham in northern New Jersey.

Other dishes came about during the early 20th century and have much to do with delicatessen fare, set up largely by Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe who came to America incredibly poor, often illiterate in any other language but Yiddish, and often banished from mainstream society in their place of origin for centuries. Most often they were completely unable to partake in the outdoor food markets that the general population utilized as most of the food for sale was not kosher.

The influence of European Jewry before their destruction in the Holocaust on modern mid-Atlantic cooking remains strong and reinforced by their many descendants in the region. [141] These currently form the largest concentration of Jews outside Tel Aviv and very integrated into the local mainstream of New York in particular.

American-style pickles, now a common addition to hamburgers and sandwiches, were brought by Polish Jews, [142] and Austro-Hungarian Jews brought a recipe for almond horns that now is a common regional cookie, diverting from the original recipe in dipping the ends in dark chocolate. [143] [144]

New York-style cheesecake has copious amounts of cream and eggs because animal rennet is not kosher and so could not be sold to a large number of the deli's clientele.

New York inherited its bagels and bialys from Jews, as well as Challah bread. Pastrami first entered the country via Romanian Jews, and is a feature of many sandwiches, often eaten on marble rye, a bread that was born in [ clarification needed ] the mid-Atlantic.

Whitefish salad, lox, and matzoh ball soup are now standard fare made to order at local diners and delicatessens, but started their life as foods that made up a strict dietary code. Rugelach cookies and hamentashen are sweet staples still sold to the general public, but came to New York over a century ago with Ashkenazi Jews along with Jewish rye. [145] [146]

Many of their dishes passed into the mainstream enough that they became standard fare in diners by the end of the 20th century, a type of restaurant that is now the most common in the region, and the subject matter of the artist Edward Hopper.

In the past this sort of establishment was the haven of the short-order cook grilling or frying simple foods for the working man. Today typical service includes staples from this large region like beef on weck, Manhattan clam chowder, the club sandwich, Buffalo wings, Philadelphia cheesesteak, the black and white cookie, shoofly pie, snapper soup, Smith Island cake, blackout cake, grape pie, milkshakes, and the egg cream, a vanilla or chocolate fountain drink with a frothy top and fizzy taste.

As in Hopper's painting from 1942, many of these businesses are open 24 hours a day.

Midwest Edit

Midwestern cuisine today is a very eclectic and odd mix and match of foodways, covering everything from Kansas City-style barbecue to the Chicago-style hot dog, though many of its classics are very simple, hearty fare.

This region was mostly untouched by European and American settlers until after the American Civil War, and excepting Missouri and the heavily forested states near the Great Lakes, was mainly populated by nomadic tribes like the Sioux, Osage, Arapaho, and Cheyenne.

As with most other American Indians tribes, these tribes consumed the Three Sisters of beans, maize, and squash, but also for thousands of years followed the herds of bison, hunting them on foot and later on horseback, typically using bow and arrow.

There are buffalo jumps dating back nearly 10,000 years and several photographs and written accounts of trappers and homesteaders attesting to their dependence on the buffalo and to a lesser degree elk.

After nearly wiping out elk and bison, this region has taken to raising bison alongside cattle for their meat and at an enormous profit, making them into burgers and steaks.

This region today comprises the states near the Great Lakes and also the Great Plains much of it is prairie with a very flat terrain where the blue sky meets a neverending horizon. Winters are bitterly cold, windy, and wet.

Often that means harsh blizzards especially near the Great Lakes where Arctic winds blow off of Canada, where ice on rivers and lakes freezes thick enough for ice hockey, and for ice fishing for pike, walleye and panfish to be ubiquitous. In Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, they often become part of the local fish fry.

Population density is extremely low away from the Great Lakes and small towns dominated by enormous farms are the rule, larger cities being the exception. Detroit, Cleveland, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, and St. Paul dominate the landscape in wealth and size, owing to their ties with manufacturing, finance, transportation, and meatpacking.

Smaller places like Omaha, Tulsa, and Kansas City are the local capitals, but the king is Chicago, third-largest city in the country, on the shores of Lake Michigan.

Non-American Indian settlement began in Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan earlier than anywhere else in the region, and thus the food available here ranges from the sublime to the bizarre.

As with all of the Midwest, the primary meats here are beef and poultry, since the Midwest has been raising turkeys, chickens, and geese for over 150 years. Chickens have been common for so long that the Midwest has several native breeds that are prized for both backyard farming and for farmer's markets, such as the Buckeye and Wyandotte. One, Billina, appears as a character in the second book of the Oz series by L. Frank Baum.

Favorite fruits of the region include some native plants inherited from Native American tribes like the pawpaw, and American persimmons are also highly favored.

As in the American South, pawpaws are the region's largest native fruit, about the size of a mango, often found growing wild come September they are made into preserves and cakes and command quite a price at farmer's markets in Chicago. [147]

The American persimmon is often smaller than its Japanese cousin, about the size of a small plum, but in the Midwest and parts of the East it is the main ingredient in a steamed pudding called persimmon pudding, topped with crème anglaise.

Other crops inherited from the Native Americans include wild rice, which grows on the banks of lakes and is a local favorite for fancy meals and today often used in stuffing for Thanksgiving.

Typical fruits of the region are cold-weather crops. Once it was thought that its winters were too harsh for apples, but a breeder in Minnesota produced the Wealthy apple and it became the third-most productive region for apple growing in the land, with local varieties comprising Wolf River, Enterprise, Melrose, Paula Red, Rome Beauty, Honeycrisp, and the Red Delicious.

Cherries are important to Michigan and Wisconsin grows many cranberries, a legacy of early-19th-century emigration of New England farmers. Crabapple jelly is a favorite condiment of the region.

The influence of German, Scandinavian, and Slavic peoples on the northern portion of the region is very strong many emigrated to Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, and Illinois in the 19th century to take advantage of jobs in the meatpacking business as well as being homesteaders and tradesmen.

Bratwurst is a very common sausage eaten at tailgate parties for the Green Bay Packers, Chicago Bears, or Detroit Lions, often served boiled in lager beer with sauerkraut, different than many of the recipes currently found in Germany.

Polish sausage, in particular a locally invented type of kielbasa, is essential for sporting events in Chicago: Chicago today has approximately 200,000 Polish speakers and has had a similar population for over 100 years. [148]

When Poles came to Chicago and surrounding cities from Europe, they brought with them long ropes of kielbasa, cabbage rolls, and pierogis. Poles that left Poland after the fall of the Berlin Wall and descendants of earlier immigrants still make them, and they remain common in local diners and delis. [149]

Today alongside the pierogi, the sausage is served on a long roll with mustard like a hot dog or as a Maxwell Street Polish, a sandwich with caramelized onions. In Cleveland, the same sausage is served in the form of the Polish boy, a sandwich made of french fries, spicy barbecue sauce, and coleslaw.

Unlike cities in the East where the hot dog alone is traditional, fans of the Cleveland Indians, Detroit Tigers, Chicago Cubs, and Milwaukee Brewers favor two or three different kinds of sausage sold in the pushcarts outside the stadium.

The hot dogs themselves tend to follow the Chicago style, loaded with mustard, and pickled vegetables.

In Cincinnati, where the Cincinnati Reds play, there is a competitor in Cincinnati chili. Invented by Macedonian immigrants, it includes spaghetti as its base, chili with a Mediterranean-inspired spice mix, and cheddar cheese the chili itself is often a topping for local hot dogs at games.

In the Midwest and especially Minnesota, [150] the tradition of the church potluck is a gathering where local foods reign, and has been since the era of the frontier pioneers often needed to pool resources to have a celebration in the 19th century and that simply never changed. [151]

Nowhere is this more clear than with the hotdish, a type of casserole believed to have derived from a Norwegian recipe, it is usually topped with potatoes or tater tots. [152] Next to the hotdish at potlucks usually glorified rice is found, a kind of rice pudding mixed with crushed pineapple and maraschino cherries. Next to that is the booyah, a thick soup made of meat, vegetables, and seasonings that is meant to simmer on the stove for up to two days.

Lefse, traditionally a Scandinavian flatbread, has been handed down to descendants for over a hundred years and is common on the table. Behind that is venison, a popular meat around the Great Lakes and often eaten as steaks, sandwiches, and crown roasts for special events. [153] [154] Within Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Dakotas, tiger meat, a dish similar to steak tartare, is common.

Last on the table are the dessert bars and brownies, created originally in 1898 in Chicago, now a global food and international favorite. [155]

Further South, barbecue has its own style in places in Kansas and St. Louis different from the South and American West. Kansas City and St. Louis were and are important hubs for the railroad that connected the plains with the Great Lakes and cities farther east, like Philadelphia. [156]

At the turn of the 19th century, the St. Louis area, Omaha, and Kansas City had huge stockyards, waystations for cattle and pigs on their way East to the cities of the coast and North to the Great Lakes. [157] [158] They all had large growing immigrant and migrant populations from Europe and the South respectively, so the region has developed unique styles of barbecue.

St. Louis-style barbecue favors a heavy emphasis on a sticky sweet barbecue sauce. Its standbys include the pork steak, a cut taken from the shoulder of the pig, grilled then slowly stewed in a pan over charcoal crispy snoots, a cut from the cheek and nose of the pig that is fried up like cracklins and eaten dipped in sauce pork spare ribs and a mix of either beer-boiled bratwurst or grilled Italian sausage, flavored with fennel.

Dessert is usually something like gooey butter cake, invented in the city in the 1930s.

Kansas City-style barbecue uses several different kinds of meat, more than most styles of American barbecue—turkey, mutton, pork, and beef to name a few—but is distinct from St. Louis in that the barbecue sauce adds molasses in with the tomato-based recipe and typically has a more tart taste.

Traditionally, Kansas City uses a low-and-slow method of smoking the meat in addition to just stewing it in the sauce. It also favors using hickory wood for smoking and continual watering or layering of the sauce while cooking to form a glaze with burnt ends this step is necessary to create the "bark" or charred outer layer of the brisket.

Southern United States Edit

When referring to the American South as a region, typically it should indicate Southern Maryland and the states that were once part of the Old Confederacy, with the dividing line between the East and West jackknifing about 100 miles west of Dallas, Texas, and mostly south of the old Mason–Dixon line. Cities found in this area include New Orleans, Miami, Atlanta, Washington, D.C., Memphis, Charleston, and Charlotte with Houston, Texas being the largest.

These states are much more closely tied to each other and have been part of US territory for much longer than states much farther west than East Texas, and in the case of food, the influences and cooking styles are strictly separated as the terrain begins to change to prairie and desert from bayou and hardwood forest.

This section of the country has some of the oldest known foodways in the land, with some recipes almost 400 years old.

Native American influences are still quite visible in the use of cornmeal as an essential staple [159] and found in the Southern predilection for hunting wild game, in particular wild turkey, deer, woodcock, and various kinds of waterfowl for example, coastal North Carolina is a place where hunters will seek tundra swan as a part of Christmas dinner the original English and Scottish settlers would have rejoiced at this revelation owing to the fact that such was banned amongst the commoner class in what is now the United Kingdom, and naturally, their descendants have not forgotten. [160] [161]

Native Americans also consumed turtles and catfish, specifically the snapping turtle, the alligator snapping turtle, and blue catfish. Catfish are often caught with one's bare hands, gutted, breaded, and fried to make a Southern variation on English fish and chips and turtles are turned into stews and soups. [162] [163]

Native American tribes of the region such as the Cherokee or Choctaw often cultivated or gathered local plants like pawpaw, maypop and several sorts of squashes and corn as food. [164] They also used spicebush [165] and sassafras as spices, [166] and the aforementioned fruits are still cultivated as food in the South. [167]

Maize is to this day found in dishes for breakfast, lunch and dinner in the form of grits, hoecakes, baked cornbread, and spoonbread, and nuts like the hickory, black walnut and pecan are commonly included in desserts and pastries as varied as mince pies, pecan pie, pecan rolls and honey buns (both are types of sticky bun), and quick breads, which were themselves invented in the South during the American Civil War.

Peaches have been grown in this region since the 17th century and are a staple crop as well as a favorite fruit, with peach cobbler being a signature dessert.

Early history Edit

European influence began soon after the settlement of Jamestown in 1607 and the earliest recipes emerged by the end of the 17th century. Specific influences from Europe were quite varied, and remain traditional and essential to the modern cookery overall.

German speakers often settled in the Piedmont on small farms from the coast, and invented an American delicacy that is now nationally beloved, apple butter, based on their recipe for apfelkraut, and later they introduced red cabbage and rye.

From the British Isles, an enormous amount of influence was bestowed upon the South, specifically foodways found in 17th- and 18th-century Ulster, the borderlands between England and Scotland, the Scottish Highlands, portions of Wales, the West Midlands and Black Country. Settlers bound for America fled the tumult of the Civil War, Ulster and the Highland Clearances.

Often ships' manifests show their belongings nearly always included cookpots or bakestones and seed stock for plants like peaches, plums, and apples to grow orchards which they planted in their hundreds. Each group brought foods and ideas from their respective regions.

Settlers from Ireland and Scotland were well known for creating peatreak and poitín, strong hard liquor based on fermenting potatoes or barley. In time they came up with a method for distilling a corn mash with added sugar and aging in charred barrels made of select hardwoods, which created a whiskey with a high proof. This gave birth to American whiskey and Kentucky bourbon, and its cousins moonshine and Everclear.

Closer to the coast, 18th-century recipes for English trifle turned into tipsy cakes, replacing the sherry with whiskey and their recipe for pound cake, brought to the South around the same time, still works with American baking units: 1 pound sugar, one pound eggs, one pound butter, one pound flour.

Common features Edit

Pork is the popular choice in 80% of Southern style barbecue and features in other preparations like sausages and sandwiches. For most Southerners in the antebellum period, corn and pork were staples of the diet. [78] Country sausage is an ingredient in the Southern breakfast dish of biscuits and gravy. Country ham is often served for breakfast and cured with salt or sugar and hickory-smoked. [168]

Accompanying many meals is the southern style fluffy biscuit, where the leavening agent is baking soda and often includes buttermilk, and for breakfast they often accompany country ham, grits, and scrambled eggs.

Desserts Edit

Desserts in the South tend to be quite rich and very much a legacy of entertaining to impress guests, since a Southern housewife was (and to a degree still is) expected to show her hospitality by laying out as impressive a banquet as she is able to manage. [169]

American style sponge cakes tend to be the rule rather than the exception as is American-style buttercream, a place where Southern baking intersects with the rest of the United States. Nuts like pecan and hickory tend to be revered as garnishes for these desserts, and make their way into local bakeries as fillings for chocolates.

Cajun and Creole Cuisine of Louisiana Edit

In Louisiana, cooking methods have more in common with rustic French cuisines of the 17th and 18th century than anything ever found at the French court in Versailles or the bistros of 19th- and 20th-century Paris this is especially true of Cajun cuisine.

Cajun French is more closely related to dialects spoken in Northern Maine, New Brunswick, and to a lesser degree Haiti than anything spoken in modern France, and likewise their terminology, methodology, and culture concerning food is much more closely related to the styles of these former French colonies even today.

Unlike other areas of the South, Cajuns were and still are largely Catholics and thus much of what they eat is seasonal for example pork is an important component of the Cajun boucherie (a large community event where the hog is butchered, prepared with a fiery spice mix, and eaten snout to tail) but it is never consumed in the five weeks of Lent, when such would be forbidden.

Cajun cuisine tends to focus on what is locally available, historically because Cajuns were often poor, illiterate, independent farmers and not plantation owners but today it is because such is deeply imbedded in local culture.

Boudin is a type of sausage found only in this area of the country, and it is often by far more spicy than anything found in France or Belgium. Chaudin is unique to the area, and the method of cooking is comparable to the Scottish dish haggis: the stuffing includes onions, rice, bell peppers, spices, and pork sewn up in the stomach of a pig, and served in slices piping hot.

Crayfish are a staple of the Cajun grandmother's cookpot, as they are abundant in the bayous of Southern Louisiana and a main source of livelihood, as are blue crabs, shrimp, corn on the cob, and red potatoes, since these are the basic ingredients of the Louisiana crawfish boil.

New Orleans has been the capital of Creole culture since before Louisiana was a state. This culture is that of the colonial French and Spanish that evolved in the city of New Orleans, which was and still is quite distinct from the rural culture of Cajuns and dovetails with what would have been eaten in antebellum Louisiana plantation culture long ago.

Cooking to impress and show one's wealth was a staple of Creole culture, which often mixed French, Spanish, Italian, German, African, Caribbean and Native American cooking methods, producing rich dishes like oysters bienville, pompano en papillote, and even the muffaletta sandwich.

However, Louisiana Creole cuisine tends to diverge from the original ideas brought to the region in ingredients: profiteroles, for example, use a near identical choux pastry to that which is found in modern Paris but often use vanilla or chocolate ice cream rather than custard as the filling, pralines nearly always use pecan and not almonds, and bananas foster came about when New Orleans was a key port for the import of bananas from the Caribbean Sea. [170]

Gumbos tend to be thickened with okra, or the leaves of the sassafrass tree. Andouille is often used, but not the andouille currently known in France, since French andouille uses tripe whereas Louisiana andouille is made from a Boston butt, usually inflected with pepper flakes, and smoked for hours over pecan wood.

Other ingredients that are native to Louisiana and not found in the cuisine of modern France would include rice, which has been a staple of both Creole and Cajun cooking for generations, and sugarcane, which has been grown in Louisiana since the early 1800s. [171]

Ground cayenne pepper is a key spice of the region, as is the meat of the American alligator, something settlers learned from the Choctaws and Houma. The maypop plant has been a favorite of Southerners for 350 years it gives its name to the Ocoee River in Tennessee, a legacy of the Cherokees, and in Southern Louisiana it is known as liane de grenade, indicating its consumption by Cajuns. It is a close relative of the commercial passionfruit, similar in size, and is a common plant growing in gardens all over the South as a source of fresh summertime fruit.

African American influences Edit

West African influences came with slaves from Ghana, Benin, Mali, Congo, Angola, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and other portions of the Gold Coast, and the mark Africans and their descendants, the African Americans, have made on Southern food is strong today and an essential addition to the Southern table.

Crops like okra, sorghum, sesame seeds, eggplant, and many different kinds of melons were brought with them from West Africa along with the incredibly important introduction of rice to the Carolinas and later to Texas and Louisiana, whence it became a staple grain of the region and still remains a staple today, found in dishes like Hoppin John, purloo, and Charleston red rice.

Like the poorer indentured servants that came to the South, slaves often got the leftovers of what was slaughtered for the consumption of the master of the plantation and so many recipes had to be adapted for offal, like pig's ears and fatbacks [172] though other methods encouraged low and slow methods of cooking to tenderize the tougher cuts of meat, like braising, smoking, and pit roasting, the last of which was a method known to West Africans in the preparation of roasting goat. [173]

Peanut soup is one of the oldest known recipes brought to Virginia by Africans and over time, through their descendants, it has become creamier and milder tasting than the original. [174]

Florida cuisine Edit

Certain portions of the South often have their own distinct subtypes of cuisine owing to local history and landscape. Floridian cuisine, for example, has a distinct way of cooking that includes different ingredients, especially south of Tampa and Orlando.

Spain had control of the state until the early 19th century and used the southern tip as an outpost to guard the Spanish Main beginning in the 1500s, but Florida kept and still maintains ties with the Caribbean Sea, including the Bahamas Haiti, Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Jamaica.

South of Tampa, there are and have been for a long time many speakers of Caribbean Spanish, Haitian French, Jamaican Patois, and Haitian Creole and each Caribbean culture has a strong hold on cooking methods and spices in Florida. In turn, each mixes and matches with the foodways of the Seminole tribe and Anglophone settlers. Thus, for almost 200 years, Floridian cooking has had a more tropical flavor than any other Southern state.

Allspice, a spice originally from Jamaica, is an ingredient found in spice mixes in summer barbecues along with ginger, garlic, scotch bonnet peppers, sea salt, and nutmeg in Floridian cooking this is often a variant of Jamaican jerk spice. Coconuts are grown in the areas surrounding Miami and are shipped in daily through its port for consumption of the milk, meat, and water of the coconut.

Bananas are not just the yellow Cavendish variety found in supermarkets across America: in Florida they are available as bananitos, colorados, plátanos, and maduros. The first of these is a tiny miniature banana only about 4-5 inches (10–13 cm) in length and it is sweet. The second has a red peel and an apple-like aftertaste, and the third and fourth are used as a starch on nearly every Caribbean island as a side dish, baked or fried: all of the above are a staple of Florida outdoor markets when in season and all have been grown in the Caribbean for almost 400 years.

Mangoes are grown as a backyard plant in Southern Florida and otherwise are a favorite treat coming in many different shapes in sizes from Nam Doc Mai, brought to Florida after the Vietnam War, to Madame Francis, a mango from Haiti. Sweetsop and soursop are popular around Miami, but nearly unheard of in other areas of the South.

Citrus is a major crop of Florida, and features at many breakfast tables and many markets, with the height of the season near the first week of January. Hamlin oranges are the main cultivar planted, and from this crop the rest of the United States and to a lesser extent Europe gets orange juice. Other plantings would include grapefruits, tangerines, clementine oranges, limes, and even a few more rare ones, like cara cara navels, tangelos, and the Jamaican Ugli fruit. Tomatoes, bell peppers, habanero peppers, and figs, especially taken from the Florida strangler fig, complete the produce menu.

Blue crab, conch, Florida stone crab, red drum, dorado, and marlins tend to be local favorite ingredients. Dairy is available in this region, but it is less emphasized due to the year round warmth.

Traditional key lime pie, a dessert from the islands off the coast of Miami, is made with condensed milk to form the custard with the eye wateringly tart limes native to the Florida Keys in part because milk would spoil in an age before refrigeration.

Pork in this region tends to be roasted in methods similar to those found in Puerto Rico and Cuba, owing to mass emigration from those countries in the 20th century, especially in the counties surrounding Miami. [175]

Orange blossom honey is a specialty of the state, and is widely available in farmer's markets. [176] Caribbean lobster is a favorite special meal eagerly sought after by Floridians as it is found as far north as Fort Myers: spear diving and collecting them from reefs in the Florida Keys and near rocky shoals is a common practice of local scuba divers. [177]

Other small game Edit

Ptarmigan, grouse, crow blackbirds, dove, ducks and other game fowl are consumed in the United States. In the American state of Arkansas, beaver tail stew is consumed in Cotton town. [178] Squirrel, raccoon, possum, bear, muskrat, chipmunk, skunk, groundhog, pheasant, armadillo and rabbit are also consumed in the United States.

Cuisine in the West Edit

Cooking in the American West gets its influence from Native American and Hispanophone cultures, as well as later settlers that came in the 19th century: Texas, for example, has some influence from Germany in its choice of barbecue by using sausages.

Another instance can be found in the Northwestern region, which encompasses Oregon, Washington, and Northern California. All of the aforementioned rely on local seafood and a few classics of their own.

In New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, West Texas, and Southern California, Mexican flavors and influences are extremely common, especially from the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Baja California, and Sonora. [ citation needed ]

Northwest Edit

The Pacific Northwest as a region includes Alaska and the state of Washington near the Canada-US border and terminates near Sacramento, California. Here, the terrain is mostly temperate rainforest on the coast mixed with pine forest as one approaches the Canada-US border inland.

One of the core favorite foodstuffs is Pacific salmon, native to many of the larger rivers of the area and often smoked or grilled on cedar planks. In Alaska, wild game like ptarmigan and moose meat feature extensively since much of the state is wilderness.

Fresh fish like steelhead trout, Pacific cod, Pacific halibut, and pollock are fished for extensively and feature on the menu of many restaurants, as do a plethora of fresh berries and vegetables, like Cameo apples from Washington state, the headquarters of the U.S. apple industry, cherries from Oregon, blackberries, and marionberries, a feature of many pies. Hazelnuts are grown extensively in this region and are a feature of baking, such as in chocolate hazelnut pie, an Oregon favorite, [179] and Almond Roca is a local candy.

This region is also heavily dominated by some notable wineries producing a high-quality product.

Like its counterpart on the opposite coast to the East, there is a grand variety of shellfish in this region. Geoducks are a native species of giant clam that have incredibly long necks they are eaten by the bucketful and shipped to Asia for millions of dollars as they are believed to be an aphrodisiac. Gaper clams are a favorite food, often grilled or steamed in a sauce.

Native California abalone is protected as a food source, and a traditional foodway predating settlement by whites, today featuring heavily in the cooking of fine restaurants as well as in home cooking, in mirin-flavored soups (the influence of Japanese cooking is strong in the region) noodle dishes and on the barbecue.

Olympia oysters are served on the half shell as well as the Kumamoto oyster, introduced by Japanese immigrants and a staple at dinner as an appetizer.

California mussels are a delicacy of the region, and have been a feature of the cooking for generations. There is evidence that Native American tribes consumed them up and down the California coast for centuries. [ citation needed ]

Crabs are a delicacy, and included in this are Alaskan king crab, red crab, yellow crab, and Dungeness crab. Californian and Oregonian sportsmen pursue the last three extensively using hoop nets, and prepare them in a multitude of ways.

Alaskan king crab, able to get up to 10 kg, is often served steamed for a whole table with lemon-butter sauce or put in chunks of salad with avocado, and native crabs are the base of dishes like the California roll, cioppino, a tomato-based fisherman's stew, and Crab Louie, another kind of salad native to San Francisco.

Favorite grains are mainly wheat, and the region is known for sourdough bread. Cheeses of the region include Humboldt Fog, Cougar Gold and Teleme. [180]

Southwest and Southern California Edit

The states of the Four Corners (Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah) plus Nevada, Southern California, and West Texas make up a large chunk of the United States.

There is a distinct Hispanic accent to the cookery here, with each having cultural capitals in Albuquerque, Denver, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Phoenix, Santa Fe, San Diego, and Tucson.

For centuries, prior to California's statehood in the 1850s, it was part of the Spanish Empire, namely Alta California (modern California), Santa Fe de Nuevo México (modern New Mexico), and Tejas (modern Texas). Today it is home of a large population of Native Americans, Hispanos, descendants of the American frontier, Asian Americans, and immigrants from Mexico and Latin America.

California, New Mexico, and Texas continue to hold their unique identities which is reflected in their distinct regional cuisines, the multiple cuisines of California, New Mexican cuisine, Texan cuisine, and Tex-Mex. Spanish is a commonly spoken secondary language here the state of New Mexico has its own distinct dialect. [181]

With the exception of Southern California, the signature meat is beef, since this is one of the two regions in which cowboys lived and modern cattle ranchers still eke out their living today. [182] [183] High-quality beefstock is a feature that has been present in the region for more than 200 years and the many cuts of beef are unique to the United States. These cuts of meat are different from the related Mexican cuisine over the border in that certain kind of offal, like lengua (tongue) cabeza (head) and tripas (tripe) are considered less desirable and are thus less emphasized. Typical cuts would include the ribs, brisket, sirloin, flank steak, skirt steak, and t-bone.

Historically, Spanish settlers that came to the region found it completely unsuitable to the mining operations that much older settlements in Mexico had to offer as their technology was not advanced enough to extract the silver that would later be found. They had no knowledge of the gold in California, which wouldn't be found until 1848, and knew even less about the silver in Nevada, undiscovered until after the Civil War.

Instead, in order to make the pueblos prosper, they adapted the old rancho system of places like Andalusia in Spain and brought the earliest beefstock, among these were breeds that would go feral and become the Texas longhorn, and Navajo-Churro sheep, still used as breeding stock because they are easy to keep and well adapted to the extremely arid and hot climate, where temperatures easily exceed 38 °C. [184]

Later, cowboys learned from their management practices, many of which still stand today, like the practical management of stock on horseback using the Western saddle. [185]

Likewise, settlers learned the cooking methods of those who came before and local tribes as well, for example, portions of Arizona and New Mexico still use the aforementioned beehive shaped clay contraption called an horno, an outdoor wood-fired oven both Native American tribes like the Navajo and Spaniards used for roasting meat, maize, and baking bread. [186]

Meats that see frequent use are elk meat, a favorite in crown roasts and burgers, and nearer the Mexican border rattlesnake, often skinned and stewed. [187] [188]

The taste for alcohol tends toward light and clean flavors found in tequila, a staple of this region since the days of the Wild West and a staple in the bartender's arsenal for cocktails, especially in Las Vegas. In Utah, a state heavily populated by Mormons, alcohol is frowned upon by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints but still available in area bars in Salt Lake City, mainly consumed by the populations of Catholics and other Protestant denominations living there.

Introduction of agriculture was limited prior to the 20th century and the development of better irrigation techniques, but included the addition of peaches, a crop still celebrated by Native American tribes like the Havasupai, [189] and oranges. Today in Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico the favored orange today is the Moro blood orange, which often finds its way into the local cuisine, like cakes and marmalade. [190] [191]

Pine nuts are a particular regional specialty and feature often in fine dining and cookies in Nevada the Native American tribes that live there are by treaty given rights to exclusive harvest, and in New Mexico they reserve usage of the term piñon for certain species of indigenous pine nuts. [192]

From Native Americans, Westerners learned the practice of eating cactus fruit from the myriad species of opuntia that occupy the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Mojave desert lands. In California, Spanish missionaries brought with them the mission fig, and today this fruit is a delicacy.

Cuisine in this region tends to have certain key ingredients: tomatoes, onions, black beans, pinto beans, rice, bell peppers, chile peppers, and cheese, in particular Monterey Jack, invented in Southern California in the 19th century and itself often further altered into pepper Jack where spicy jalapeño peppers are incorporated into the cheese to create a smoky taste.

Chili peppers play an important role in the cuisine, with a few native to the region. This is especially true with the region's distinct New Mexico chile pepper, still grown by Hispanos of New Mexico and Puebloans the most sought after of which come from the Hatch valley, Albuquerque's Central Rio Grande, Chimayo, and Pueblos.

In New Mexico, chile is eaten on a variety of foods, such as the green chile cheeseburger, made popular by fast food chains such as Blake's Lotaburger. Indeed, even national fast food chains operating in the state, such as McDonald's, offer locally grown chile on many of their menu items.

In the 20th century a few more recent additions have arrived like the poblano pepper, rocoto pepper, ghost pepper, thai chili pepper, and Korean pepper, the last three especially when discussing Southern California and its large population from East and South Asia. [193] [194]

Cornbread is consumed, however the recipe differs from ones in the East in that the batter is cooked in a cast-iron skillet.

Outdoor cooking is popular and still utilizes an old method settlers brought from the East with them, in which a cast-iron Dutch oven is covered with the coals of the fire and stacked or hung from a tripod: this is different from the earthenware pots of Mexico.

Tortillas are still made the traditional way here and form an important component of the spicy breakfast burrito, which contains ham, eggs, and salsa or pico de gallo. They are also used for regular burritos, which contains any combination of marinated meats, vegetables, and piquant chilis smothered burritos, often both containing and topped with New Mexico chile sauces quesadillas, a much loved grilled dish where cheese and other ingredients are stuffed between two tortillas and served by the slice and steak fajitas, where sliced skirt steak sizzles in a skillet with caramelized onions.

Unlike Mexico, tortillas of this region also may incorporate vegetables like spinach into the flatbread dough to make wraps, which were invented in Southern California. Food here tends to use pungent spices and condiments, typically chili verde sauce, various kinds of hot sauce, sriracha sauce, chili powder, cayenne pepper, white pepper, cumin, paprika, onion powder, thyme and black pepper. Nowhere is this fiery mix of spice more evident than in the dishes chili con carne, a meaty stew, and cowboy beans, both of which are a feature of regional cookoffs.

Southern California has several additions like five spice powder, rosemary, curry powder, kimchi, and lemongrass, with many of these brought by recent immigration to the region and often a feature of Southern California's fusion cuisine, popular in fine dining. [ citation needed ]

In Texas, the local barbecue is often entirely made up of beef brisket or large rib racks, where the meat is seasoned with a spice rub and cooked over coals of mesquite. In other portions of the state they smoke the meat and peppery sausages over high heat using pecan, apple, and oak wood and serve it with a side of pickled vegetables, a legacy of German and Czech settlers of the late 1800s.

California is home to Santa Maria-style barbecue, where the spices involved generally are black pepper, paprika, and garlic salt, and grill over the coals of coast live oak. [ citation needed ]

Native American additions may include Navajo frybread and corn on the cob, often roasted on the grill in its husk. A typical accompaniment or appetizer of all these states is the tortilla chip, which sometimes includes cornmeal from cultivars of corn that are blue or red in addition to the standard yellow of sweetcorn, and is served with salsa of varying hotness.

Tortilla chips also are an ingredient in the Tex Mex dish nachos, where these chips are loaded with any combination of ground beef, melted Monterey Jack, cheddar, or Colby cheese, guacamole, sour cream, and salsa, and Texas usually prefers a version of potato salad as a side dish.

For alcohol, a key ingredient is tequila: this spirit has been made on both sides of the US-Mexican border for generations, [195] and in modern cuisine it is a must-have in a bartender's arsenal as well as an addition to dishes for sauteeing. [196]

Southern California is focused more towards the coast and has had more contact with immigration from the West Pacific and Baja California, in addition to having the international city of Los Angeles as its capital. Here, the prime mode of transportation is by car.

Drive through fast food was invented in this area, but so was the concept of the gourmet burger movement, giving birth to chains like In-N-Out Burger, with many variations of burgers including chili, multiple patties, avocado, special sauces, and Angus or wagyu beef. Common accompaniments include thick milkshakes in various flavors like mint, chocolate, peanut butter, vanilla, strawberry, and mango.

Smoothies are a common breakfast item made with fresh fruit juice, yogurt, and crushed ice. Agua fresca, a drink originated by Mexican immigrants, is a common hot-weather beverage sold in many supermarkets and at mom and pop stands, available in citrus, watermelon, and strawberry flavors the California version usually served chilled without grain in it.

The weather in Southern California is such that the temperature rarely drops below 54 °F in winter, thus, sun-loving crops like pistachios, kiwifruit, avocadoes, strawberries, and tomatoes are staple crops of the region, the last often dried in the sun and a feature of salads and sandwiches.

Olive oil is a staple cooking oil of the region and has been since the days of Junípero Serra today the mission olive is a common tree growing in a Southern Californian's back garden. As a crop olives are increasingly a signature of the region along with Valencia oranges and Meyer lemons.

Soybeans, bok choy, Japanese persimmon, thai basil, Napa cabbage, nori, mandarin oranges, water chestnuts, and mung beans are other crops brought to the region from East Asia and are common additions to salads as the emphasis on fresh produce in both Southern and Northern California is strong.

Other vegetables and herbs have a distinct Mediterranean flavor which would include oregano, basil, summer squash, eggplant, and broccoli, with all of the above extensively available at farmers' markets all around Southern California.

Naturally, salads native to Southern California tend to be hearty affairs, like Cobb salad and Chinese chicken salad, and dressings like green goddess and ranch are a staple.

California-style pizza tends to have disparate ingredients with an emphasis on vegetables, with any combination of chili oil, prawns, eggs, chicken, shiitake mushrooms, olives, bell pepper, goat cheese, and feta cheese. Peanut noodles tend to include a sweet dressing with lo mein noodles and chopped peanuts.

Fresh fish and shellfish in Southern California tends to be expensive in restaurants, but every year since the end of WWII, the Pismo clam festival has taken place where the local population takes a large species of clam and bakes, stuffs, and roasts it as it is a regional delicacy. [197] [198]

Fishing for pacific species of octopus and the Humboldt squid are common, and both are a feature of East Asian and other L.A. fish markets. [199] [200] [201] Lingcod is a coveted regional fish that is often caught in the autumn off the coast of San Diego and in the Channel Islands and often served baked. California sheephead are often grilled and are much sought after by spear fishermen and the immigrant Chinese population, in which case it is basket steamed.

Most revered of all in recent years is the California spiny lobster, a beast that can grow to 44 lb, and is a delicacy that now rivals the fishery for Dungeness crab in its importance. [202]

Pacific and Hawaiian cuisine Edit

Hawaii is often considered to be one of the most culturally diverse U.S. states, as well as being the only state with an Asian-majority population and one of the few places where United States territory extends into the tropics. As a result, Hawaiian cuisine borrows elements of a variety of cuisines, particularly those of Asian and Pacific-rim cultures, as well as traditional native Hawaiian and a few additions from the American mainland.

American influence in the last 150 years has brought cattle, goats, and sheep to the islands, introducing cheese, butter, and yogurt products, as well as crops like red cabbage.

Major Asian and Polynesian influences on modern Hawaiian cuisine are from Japan, Korea, Vietnam, China (especially near the Pearl River delta,) Samoa, and the Philippines. From Japan, the concept of serving raw fish as a meal with rice was introduced, as was soft tofu, setting the stage for the popular dish called poke.

From Korea, immigrants to Hawaii brought a love of spicy garlic marinades for meat and kimchi. From China, their version of char siu baau became modern manapua, a type of steamed pork bun with a spicy filling. [203]

Filipinos brought vinegar, bagoong, and lumpia, and during the 20th century immigrants from American Samoa brought the open pit fire umu [204] and the Vietnamese introduced lemongrass and fish sauce.

Each East Asian culture brought several different kinds of noodles, including udon, ramen, mei fun, and pho, and today these are common lunchtime meals. [205]

Much of this cuisine mixes and melts into traditions like the lu'au, whose traditional elaborate fare was once the prerogative of kings and queens but is today the subject of parties for both tourists and also private parties for the ‘ohana (meaning family and close friends.)

Traditionally, women and men ate separately under the Hawaiian kapu system, a system of religious beliefs that honored the Hawaiian gods similar to the Maori tapu system, though in this case had some specific prohibitions towards females eating things like coconut, pork, turtle meat, and bananas as these were considered parts of the male gods. Punishment for violation could be severe, as a woman might endanger a man's mana, or soul, by eating with him or otherwise by eating the forbidden food because doing so dishonored the male gods.

As the system broke down after 1810, introductions of foods from laborers on plantations began to be included at feasts and much cross pollination occurred, where Asian foodstuffs mixed with Polynesian foodstuffs like breadfruit, kukui nuts, and purple sweet potatoes.

Some notable Hawaiian fare includes seared ahi tuna, opakapaka (snapper) with passionfruit, Hawaiian island-raised lamb, beef and meat products, Hawaiian plate lunch, and Molokai shrimp. Seafood traditionally is caught fresh in Hawaiian waters, and particular delicacies are ula poni, papaikualoa, ‘opihi, and ‘opihi malihini, better known as Hawaiian spiny lobster, Kona crab, Hawaiian limpet, and abalone, the last brought over with Japanese immigrants. [206]

Some cuisine also incorporates a broad variety of produce and locally grown agricultural products, including tomatoes, sweet Maui onions, taro, and macadamia nuts. Tropical fruits also play an important role in the cuisine as a flavoring in cocktails and in desserts, including local cultivars of bananas, sweetsop, mangoes, lychee, coconuts, papayas, and lilikoi (passionfruit). Pineapples have been an island staple since the 19th century and figure into many marinades and drinks.

Common dishes found on a regional level Edit

Chicken, pork and corn cooking in a barbecue smoker

New York–style pizza served at a pizzeria in New York

A Philly cheesesteak from Pat’s King of Steaks in Philadelphia

The influence of ethnicity-specific cuisines like Italian cuisine and Mexican cuisine was present in the United States by World War I. There are recipes for Chilean meat pies, chicken chop suey, chow mein, Mexican pork pastries and Italian meatballs going back to at least the 1930s, but many of the recipes were Anglicized and they appeared relatively infrequently compared to Northern European recipes. [207]

19th-century cookbooks bear evidence of diverse influences with some including recipes like Indian pickle, Italian pork and various curries. 19th-century literature shows knowledge of Jewish, Russian, Italian, Chinese and Turkish cuisines, and foreign cookbooks continued to grow more detailed through World War I including recipes like Peruvian chicken, Mexican enchiladas, Chilean corn pudding and Hindustan chicken curry. [208]

Louise Rice, author of Dainty Dishes from Foreign Lands describes the recipes in her book as "not wholly vegetarian" though noting at the time of publication in 1911 that most of the recipes would likely be new to average American cooks and likely contain higher proportions of vegetables to meat. She includes Italian pasta recipes like macaroni in milk, soups and polentas and German recipes like liver dumplings called Leberknödel and a variation of Sauerbraten. [209]

The demand for ethnic foods in the United States reflects the nation's changing diversity as well as its development over time. According to the National Restaurant Association, [210]

Restaurant industry sales are expected to reach a record high of $476 billion in 2005, an increase of 4.9 percent over 2004. Driven by consumer demand, the ethnic food market reached record sales in 2002, and has emerged as the fastest growing category in the food and beverage product sector, according to USBX Advisory Services. Minorities in the U.S. spend a combined $142 billion on food and by 2010, America's ethnic population is expected to grow by 40 percent.

A movement began during the 1980s among popular leading chefs to reclaim America's ethnic foods within its regional traditions, where these trends originated. One of the earliest was Paul Prudhomme, who in 1984 began the introduction of his influential cookbook, Paul Prodhomme's Louisiana Kitchen, by describing the over 200-year history of Creole and Cajun cooking he aims to "preserve and expand the Louisiana tradition." [211] Prodhomme's success quickly inspired other chefs. Norman Van Aken embraced a Floridian type cuisine fused with many ethnic and globalized elements in his Feast of Sunlight cookbook in 1988. California became swept up in the movement, then seemingly started to lead the trend itself, in, for example, the popular restaurant Chez Panisse in Berkeley.

Examples of the Chez Panisse phenomenon, chefs who embraced a new globalized cuisine, were celebrity chefs like Jeremiah Tower and Wolfgang Puck, both former colleagues at the restaurant. Puck went on to describe his belief in contemporary, new style American cuisine in the introduction to The Wolfgang Puck Cookbook:

Another major breakthrough, whose originators were once thought to be crazy, is the mixing of ethnic cuisines. It is not at all uncommon to find raw fish listed next to tortillas on the same menu. Ethnic crossovers also occur when distinct elements meet in a single recipe. This country is, after all, a huge melting pot. Why should its cooking not illustrate the American transformation of diversity into unity? [212]

Puck's former colleague, Jeremiah Tower became synonymous with California Cuisine and the overall American culinary revolution. Meanwhile, the restaurant that inspired both Puck and Tower became a distinguished establishment, popularizing its so called "mantra" in its book by Paul Bertolli and owner Alice Waters, Chez Panisse Cooking, in 1988. Published well after the restaurants' founding in 1971, this new cookbook from the restaurant seemed to perfect the idea and philosophy that had developed over the years. The book embraced America's natural bounty, specifically that of California, while containing recipes that reflected Bertoli and Waters' appreciation of both northern Italian and French style foods.

Early ethnic influences Edit

While the earliest cuisine of the United States was influenced by Native Americans, the thirteen colonies, or the antebellum South, the overall culture of the nation, its gastronomy and the growing culinary arts became ever more influenced by its changing ethnic mix and immigrant patterns from the 18th and 19th centuries unto the present. Some of the ethnic groups that continued to influence the cuisine were here in prior years others arrived more numerously during "The Great Transatlantic Migration" (of 1870–1914) or other mass migrations.

Some of the ethnic influences could be found across the nation after the American Civil War and into the continental expansion for most of the 19th century. Ethnic influences already in the nation at that time would include the following groups and their respective cuisines:

  • Select nationalities of Europe and the respective developments from early modern European cuisine of the colonial age:
      and on-going developments in New England cuisine, the national traditions founded in the cuisine of the original thirteen colonies, and some aspects of other regional cuisine. and early modern Spanish cuisine, as well as Basque-Americans and Basque cuisine.
  • Early German-American or Pennsylvania Dutch and Pennsylvania Dutch cuisine and their New World regional identities such as: and Cajun cuisine
    • and Native American cuisine and Soul food. and Mexican-American cuisine as well as related regional cuisines:
        (regional Texas and Mexican fusion)
      • Some aspects of "Southwestern cuisine".

      Later ethnic and immigrant influence Edit

      Mass migrations of immigrants to the United States came over time. Historians identify several waves of migration to the United States: one from 1815 to 1860, in which some five million English, Irish, Germanic, Scandinavian, and others from northwestern Europe came to the United States one from 1865 to 1890, in which some 10 million immigrants, also mainly from northwestern Europe, settled and a third from 1890 to 1914, in which 15 million immigrants, mainly from central, eastern, and southern Europe (many Austrian, Hungarian, Turkish, Lithuanian, Russian, Jewish, Greek, Italian, and Romanian) settled in the United States. [213]

      Together with earlier arrivals to the United States (including the indigenous Native Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans, particularly in the West, Southwest, and Texas African Americans who came to the United States in the Atlantic slave trade and early colonial migrants from Europe), these new waves of immigrants had a profound impact on national or regional cuisine. Some of these more prominent groups include the following:

        , particularly Lebanese Americans (the largest ethnic Arab group in the United States)—Arab cuisine, Lebanese cuisine —American Chinese cuisine, Chinese cuisine —Cuban cuisine —Dominican Republic cuisine —Eritrean Americans: Ethiopian cuisine, Eritrean cuisine in Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., Denver, New York. —German cuisine (the Pennsylvania Dutch, although descended from Germans, arrived earlier than the bulk of German migrants and have distinct culinary traditions) —Greek-American cuisine, Greek cuisine, Mediterranean cuisine —Haitian cuisine —Hungarian cuisine —Indian cuisine —Irish cuisine —Italian-American cuisine, Italian cuisine —Japanese cuisine, with influences on the Hawaiian cuisine —Jewish cuisine, with particular influence on New York City cuisine —Korean cuisine, with significant influence during the Korean War —Lithuanian cuisine, Midwest —Nicaraguan cuisine —Pakistani cuisine —Polish cuisine, with particular impact on Midwest —Hawaiian cuisine —Portuguese cuisine —Romanian cuisine —Russian cuisine, with particular impact on Midwest —Salvadoran cuisine —Scottish cuisine —Thai cuisine —Turkish cuisine, Balkan cuisine —Vietnamese cuisine —Caribbean cuisine, Jamaican cuisine, Trinidad and Tobago cuisine

      Italian, Mexican and Chinese (Cantonese) cuisines have indeed joined the mainstream. These three cuisines have become so ingrained in the American culture that they are no longer foreign to the American palate. According to the study, more than nine out of 10 consumers are familiar with and have tried these foods, and about half report eating them frequently. The research also indicates that Italian, Mexican and Chinese (Cantonese) have become so adapted to such an extent that "authenticity" is no longer a concern to customers. [214]

      Contributions from these ethnic foods have become as common as traditional "American" fares such as hot dogs, hamburgers, beef steak, which are derived from German cuisine, (chicken-fried steak, for example, is a variation on German schnitzel), cherry pie, Coca-Cola, milkshakes, fried chicken (Fried chicken is of English, Scottish, and African influence), Pepsi, Dr Pepper and so on. Nowadays, Americans also have a ubiquitous consumption of foods like pizza and pasta, tacos and burritos to "General Tso's chicken" and fortune cookies. Fascination with these and other ethnic foods may also vary with region.

      American chefs have been influential both in the food industry and in popular culture. An important 19th-century American chef was Charles Ranhofer of Delmonico's Restaurant in New York. American cooking has been exported around the world, both through the global expansion of restaurant chains such as T.G.I. Friday's and McDonald's and the efforts of individual restaurateurs such as Bob Payton, credited with bringing American-style pizza to the UK. [215]

      The first generation of television chefs such as Robert Carrier and Julia Child tended to concentrate on cooking based primarily on European, especially French and Italian, cuisines. Only during the 1970s and 1980s did television chefs such as James Beard and Jeff Smith shift the focus towards home-grown cooking styles, particularly those of the different ethnic groups within the nation. Notable American restaurant chefs include Thomas Keller, Charlie Trotter, Grant Achatz, Alfred Portale, Paul Prudhomme, Paul Bertolli, Jonathan Waxman, Mark Peel, Frank Stitt, Alice Waters, Wolfgang Puck, Patrick O'Connell and celebrity chefs like Mario Batali, David Chang, Alton Brown, Emeril Lagasse, Cat Cora, Michael Symon, Bobby Flay, Ina Garten, Todd English, Anthony Bourdain, Guy Fieri, Colonel Sanders and Paula Deen.

      Regional chefs are emerging as localized celebrity chefs with growing broader appeal, such as Peter Merriman (Hawaii Regional Cuisine), Jerry Traunfeld, Alan Wong (Pacific Rim cuisine), Rick Bayless traditional Mexican cuisine with modern interpretations, Norman Van Aken (New World Cuisine – fusion Latin, Caribbean, Asian, African and American), and Mark Miller (American Southwest cuisine).

      Symon's Suppers

      Michael Symon shows that a crowd-pleasing meal can come together in a snap, and his secret weapon is Grilled Pork Tenderloin. Watch Michael visit his butcher to see exactly where the pork tenderloin comes from, and to purchase slab bacon for his delicious Braised Cabbage side dish. To drink, a pitcher full of refreshing Cucumber Jalapeno Margarita.

      Weeknight Gourmet

      Michael Symon elevates a weeknight braise with his fork-tender Braised Veal Shanks, topped with gremolata and served with Shaved Asparagus Salad on the side. A visit to a local knifemaker helps him breeze through his veg prep even faster. For dessert, Michael visits the farmer's market for fresh peaches that inspire his warm Peach Almond Crumble.


      Michael Symon has a delicious game plan for his next party: mezze! Join Michael as he sources fresh ingredients from a garden in the sky. On the roof of a New York restaurant, this is farm-to-table in the extreme! Featuring Greek almond dip (Skordalia), golden Zucchini Fritters (Keftedes), Roasted Cauliflower and an Ouzo Lemon Spritzer inspired by the rooftop garden's refreshing mojito.

      Better with Bacon

      Everything is better with bacon! Michael Symon celebrates the virtues of bacon in a surprisingly balanced menu that includes dessert! Join Michael as he visits his butcher for house-smoked bacon to use in his Double Trouble Meatloaf, Peas and Bacon, and fudgey Bacon and Pecan Brownies. Don't miss his tour of an artisanal chocolate factory as he sources the perfect bittersweet bar for those brownies.

      Hog Wild

      Go hog wild with Michael Symon as the chef pays tribute to one of his favorite foods: pork. There's a bacon vinaigrette on his Spinach Salad with mushrooms, and he finishes the salad with a farm fresh fried egg he picks up on a visit to a community farm. Then Michael goes whole-hog with a Pork Pie filled with ground pork, bacon and potatoes, all baked in a traditional lard crust. That flaky crust is equally delicious with sweet fillings, like Chef Symon's bubbly Apple Pie.

      One Pot Wonders

      Michael Symon shares his love of one-pot wonders like his luscious Pot Roast, beef brisket braised in beer then topped with mint, lemon zest, and a spicy Celery Giardiniera. To serve alongside, Michael visits the farmer's market for freshly ground polenta, and explores a local distillery where he picks up gin for a Negroni.

      Cooking with Friends

      Michael Symon invites a friend over for dinner and drinks, but first he visits his favorite beer shop for the perfect IPA. The beer adds flavor and character to his Bloody Beer cocktail-nice and spicy with horseradish and jalapeno. Next up, Slow Roasted Beets with Buttermilk Blue Cheese, Watercress and Toasted Walnuts. For the main course, Chicken Thighs roasted with Kale and marcona almonds. Michael's buddy is going to love it, and so will you!

      Burgers 'n' Shakes

      Burgers, fries, Michael Symon and Bobby Flay -- sounds like the perfect combo meal! Michael travels to Brooklyn for some small-batch ice cream so Bobby can share his milkshake secrets. Then the two friends share tips on the perfect burger, and Bobby helps out with Michael's signature Lola Fries with Rosemary.

      Clambake Party

      Get out your beach chairs, Michael Symon is cooking a Cleveland-style clambake! Michael visits his friends at the Lobster Place for the freshest seafood, then invites his chef buddy Jonathan Waxman over and kicks things off with a Beer Mojito and Grilled Oysters. The clambake continues with corn, sausage, clams and shrimp, all cooked up in a spicy wine broth. Chef Jonathan Waxman whips up a warm potato salad, a new take on an old classic and Michael shows the perfect dessert to bring this party together: an easy lime granita served with fresh watermelon. Time for some backyard fun!

      Cast Iron

      Michael Symon shows you everything you need to know about cooking in affordable cast iron pans, with delicious recipes and easy tips that will keep your pan in top performance, year after year. Chef Symon prepares his Cast Iron Ground Beef Pie, topped with creamy mashed potatoes and served with a simple arugula salad with red grapes and honey vinaigrette. For dessert, Michael swings by the farmers' market for another cast iron recipe, Blueberry Cobbler.

      Mom's Recipes

      Michael Symon's parents are in the kitchen, stirring up memories and Mom's best recipes. First up, one of Mama Symon's specialities: Italian Braised Beef with Root Vegetables and Rigatoni. On the side, Greek Feta and Cucumber Salad. For dessert, another Greek classic: Baklava. Did Michael behave as a child? Can the Iron Chef keep up with Mom on her signature recipes? Tune in to find out!

      Brick Chicken

      Michael Symon invites his sister over for dinner and a casual cooking lesson. Brick Grilled Chicken and Grilled Corn Salad make a simple, delicious meal his sister can serve her family on the busiest of weeknights. For dessert, Bruleed Banana Split with Whiskey Caramel is a childhood favorite with a grown-up twist.

      Thanksgiving Supporting Players

      Michael Symon and his wife, Liz, share recipes for their favorite holiday, Thanksgiving. The focus is on tempting supporting players, sides and dessert made to steal the show. Roasted Brussels Sprouts with a bacon, mustard and walnut vinaigrette is a show-stopper year after year and Michael's Cornbread and Wild Rice Dressing with Pine Nuts and Parsley never disappoints. For dessert, Sweet Pumpkin Strudel with Phyllo bridges the couple's family culinary traditions. Bonus recipes include Cranberry Sauce with Bourbon, Vanilla Bean and Orange, plus Michael's recipe for a juicy, flavorful bird.


      Mary Louise Streep was born on June 22, 1949, in Summit, New Jersey. She is the daughter of artist Mary Wilkinson Streep and pharmaceutical executive Harry William Streep, Jr. [9] She has two younger brothers, Harry William Streep III and Dana David Streep, both actors. [10] Her father was of German and Swiss descent his lineage traced back to Loffenau, from where Streep's great-great-grandfather, Gottfried Streeb, immigrated to the United States and where one of her ancestors served as mayor (the surname was later changed to "Streep"). [11] Another line of her father's family was from Giswil. Her mother had English, German, and Irish ancestry. [11] Some of Streep's maternal ancestors lived in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, and were descended from 17th-century English immigrants. [12] [13] Her eighth great-grandfather, Lawrence Wilkinson, was one of the first Europeans to settle in Rhode Island. [14] Streep is also a second cousin seven times removed of William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania records show that her family is among the first purchasers of land in the state. [14] Her maternal great-great-grandparents, Manus McFadden and Grace Strain, were natives of the Horn Head district of Dunfanaghy in Ireland. [13] [15] [16]

      Streep's mother, whom she has compared in both appearance and manner to Dame Judi Dench, [17] strongly encouraged her daughter and instilled confidence in her from a very young age. [18] Streep said, "She was a mentor because she said to me, 'Meryl, you're capable. You're so great.' She was saying, 'You can do whatever you put your mind to. If you're lazy, you're not going to get it done. But if you put your mind to it, you can do anything.' And I believed her." Although she was naturally more introverted than her mother, when she later needed an injection of confidence in adulthood, she would at times consult her mother for advice. [18] Streep was raised as a Presbyterian [19] in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, and attended Cedar Hill Elementary School and the Oak Street School, which was a junior high school at that time. In her junior high debut, she starred as Louise Heller in the play The Family Upstairs. [20] In 1963, the family moved to Bernardsville, New Jersey, where she attended Bernards High School. [21] Author Karina Longworth described her as a "gawky kid with glasses and frizzy hair", yet noted that she liked to show off in front of the camera in family home movies from a young age. [22] At the age of 12, Streep was selected to sing at a school recital, leading to her having opera lessons from Estelle Liebling. Despite her talent, she later remarked, "I was singing something I didn't feel and understand. That was an important lesson—not to do that. To find the thing that I could feel through." [22] She quit after four years. Streep had many Catholic school friends, and regularly attended Mass. [23] She was a high school cheerleader for the Bernards High School Mountaineers and was also chosen as the homecoming queen her senior year. [24] Her family lived on Old Fort Road.

      Although Streep appeared in numerous school plays during her high school years, she was uninterested in serious theater until acting in the play Miss Julie at Vassar College in 1969, in which she gained attention across the campus. [25] Vassar drama professor Clinton J. Atkinson noted, "I don't think anyone ever taught Meryl acting. She really taught herself." [25] Streep demonstrated an early ability to mimic accents and to quickly memorize her lines. She received her BA cum laude in 1971, before applying for an MFA from the Yale School of Drama. At Yale, she supplemented her course fees by working as a waitress and typist, and appeared in over a dozen stage productions per year at one point, she became overworked and developed ulcers, so she contemplated quitting acting and switching to study law. [25] Streep played a variety of roles on stage, [26] from Helena in A Midsummer Night's Dream to an 80-year-old woman in a wheelchair in a comedy written by then-unknown playwrights Christopher Durang and Albert Innaurato. [27] [28] She was a student of choreographer Carmen de Lavallade, whom she introduced at the 2017 Kennedy Center Honors. [29] Another one of her teachers was Robert Lewis, one of the co-founders of the Actors Studio. Streep disapproved of some of the acting exercises she was asked to do, remarking that one professor taught the emotional recall technique by delving into personal lives in a way she found "obnoxious". [30] [31] She received her MFA from Yale in 1975. [32] She also enrolled as a visiting student at Dartmouth College in 1970, and received an Honorary Doctor of Arts degree from the college in 1981. [32]

      1970s: Theater and film debut Edit

      One of Streep's first professional jobs in 1975 was at the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center's National Playwrights Conference, during which she acted in five plays over six weeks. She moved to New York City in 1975, and was cast by Joseph Papp in a production of Trelawny of the Wells at the Vivian Beaumont Theater, opposite Mandy Patinkin and John Lithgow. [30] She went on to appear in five more roles in her first year in New York, including in Papp's New York Shakespeare Festival productions of Henry V, The Taming of the Shrew with Raul Julia, and Measure for Measure opposite Sam Waterston and John Cazale. [33] She entered into a relationship with Cazale at this time, and resided with him until his death three years later. [30] She starred in the musical Happy End on Broadway, and won an Obie for her performance in the off-Broadway play Alice at the Palace. [34]

      Although Streep had not aspired to become a film actor, Robert De Niro's performance in Taxi Driver (1976) had a profound impact on her she said to herself, 'That's the kind of actor I want to be when I grow up.' [30] Streep began auditioning for film roles, and underwent an unsuccessful audition for the lead role in Dino De Laurentiis's King Kong. De Laurentiis, referring to Streep as she stood before him, said in Italian to his son: "This is so ugly. Why did you bring me this?" [22] Unknown to Laurentiis, Streep understood Italian, and she remarked, "I'm very sorry that I'm not as beautiful as I should be, but, you know – this is it. This is what you get." [25] She continued to work on Broadway, appearing in the 1976 double bill of Tennessee Williams' 27 Wagons Full of Cotton and Arthur Miller's A Memory of Two Mondays. She received a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actress in a Play. [35] Streep's other Broadway credits include Anton Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard and the Bertolt Brecht-Kurt Weill musical Happy End, in which she had originally appeared off-Broadway at the Chelsea Theater Center. She received Drama Desk Award nominations for both productions. [36]

      Streep's first feature film role came opposite Jane Fonda in the 1977 film Julia, in which she had a small role during a flashback sequence. Most of her scenes were edited out, but the brief time on screen horrified the actress:

      I had a bad wig and they took the words from the scene I shot with Jane and put them in my mouth in a different scene. I thought, I've made a terrible mistake, no more movies. I hate this business. [30]

      However, Streep cites Fonda as having a lasting influence on her as an actress, and has credited her as "open[ing] probably more doors than I probably even know about". [18]

      Robert De Niro, who had spotted Streep in her stage production of The Cherry Orchard, suggested that she play the role of his girlfriend in the war film The Deer Hunter (1978). [37] Cazale, who had been diagnosed with lung cancer, [38] was also cast in the film, and Streep took on the role of a "vague, stock girlfriend" to remain with Cazale for the duration of filming. [39] [40] [41] Longworth notes that Streep:

      Made a case for female empowerment by playing a woman to whom empowerment was a foreign concept–a normal lady from an average American small town, for whom subservience was the only thing she knew. [42]

      Pauline Kael, who would later become a strong critic of Streep, remarked that she was a "real beauty" who brought much freshness to the film with her performance. [43] The film's success exposed Streep to a wider audience and earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. [44]

      In the 1978 miniseries Holocaust, Streep played the leading role of a German woman married to a Jewish artist played by James Woods in Nazi era Germany. She found the material to be "unrelentingly noble" and professed to have taken on the role for financial gain. [45] Streep travelled to Germany and Austria for filming while Cazale remained in New York. Upon her return, Streep found that Cazale's illness had progressed, and she nursed him until his death on March 12, 1978. [46] [41] With an estimated audience of 109 million, Holocaust brought a wider degree of public recognition to Streep, who found herself "on the verge of national visibility". She won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie for her performance. [47] Despite the awards success, Streep was still not enthusiastic towards her film career and preferred acting on stage. [48]

      Hoping to divert herself from the grief of Cazale's death, Streep accepted a role in The Seduction of Joe Tynan (1979) as the chirpy love interest of Alan Alda, later commenting that she played it on "automatic pilot". She performed the role of Katherine in The Taming of the Shrew for Shakespeare in the Park, and also played a supporting role in Manhattan (1979) for Woody Allen. Streep later said that Allen did not provide her with a complete script, giving her only the six pages of her own scenes, [49] and did not permit her to improvise a word of her dialogue. [50]

      In the drama Kramer vs. Kramer, Streep was cast opposite Dustin Hoffman as an unhappily married woman who abandons her husband and child. Streep thought that the script portrayed the female character as "too evil" and insisted that it was not representative of real women who faced marriage breakdown and child custody battles. The makers agreed with her, and the script was revised. [51] In preparing for the part, Streep spoke to her own mother about her life as a wife with a career, [52] and frequented the Upper East Side neighborhood in which the film was set, watching the interactions between parents and children. [51] The director Robert Benton allowed Streep to write her own dialogue in two key scenes, despite some objection from Hoffman, who "hated her guts" at first. [53] [a] Hoffman and producer Stanley R. Jaffe later spoke of Streep's tirelessness, with Hoffman commenting: "She's extraordinarily hard-working, to the extent that she's obsessive. I think that she thinks about nothing else, but what she's doing." [54] The film was controversial among feminists, but it was a role which film critic Stephen Farber believed displayed Streep's "own emotional intensity", writing that she was one of the "rare performers who can imbue the most routine moments with a hint of mystery". [55]

      For Kramer vs. Kramer, Streep won both the Golden Globe Award and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, which she famously left in the ladies' room after giving her speech. [56] [57] She was also awarded the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress, [58] National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress and National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress for her collective work in her three film releases of 1979. [59] [60] Both The Deer Hunter and Kramer vs. Kramer were major commercial successes and were consecutive winners of the Academy Award for Best Picture. [61] [62]

      1980s: Rise to stardom Edit

      In 1979, Streep began workshopping Alice in Concert, a musical version of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, with writer and composer Elizabeth Swados and director Joseph Papp the show was put on at New York's Public Theater from December 1980. Frank Rich of The New York Times referred to Streep as the production's "one wonder", but questioned why she devoted so much energy to it. [48] By 1980, Streep had progressed to leading roles in films. She was featured on the cover of Newsweek magazine with the headline "A Star for the 80s" Jack Kroll commented,

      There's a sense of mystery in her acting she doesn't simply imitate (although she's a great mimic in private). She transmits a sense of danger, a primal unease lying just below the surface of normal behavior. [63]

      Streep denounced her fervent media coverage at the time as "excessive hype". [63]

      The story within a story drama The French Lieutenant's Woman (1981) was Streep's first leading role. The film paired Streep with Jeremy Irons as contemporary actors, telling their modern story, as well as the Victorian era drama they were performing. Streep developed an English accent for the part, but considered herself a misfit for the role: " I couldn't help wishing that I was more beautiful". [64] [63] [b] A New York magazine article commented that, while many female stars of the past had cultivated a singular identity in their films, Streep was a "chameleon", willing to play any type of role. [66] Streep was awarded a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for her work. [67] The following year, she re-united with Robert Benton for the psychological thriller, Still of the Night (1982), co-starring Roy Scheider and Jessica Tandy. Vincent Canby, writing for The New York Times, noted that the film was an homage to the works of Alfred Hitchcock, but that one of its main weaknesses was a lack of chemistry between Streep and Scheider, concluding that Streep "is stunning, but she's not on screen anywhere near long enough". [68]

      Greater success came later in the year when Streep starred in the drama Sophie's Choice (also 1982), portraying a Polish survivor of Auschwitz caught in a love triangle between a young naïve writer (Peter MacNicol) and a Jewish intellectual (Kevin Kline). Streep's emotional dramatic performance and her apparent mastery of a Polish accent drew praise. [69] William Styron wrote the novel with Ursula Andress in mind for the role of Sophie, but Streep was determined to get the role. [70] Streep filmed the "choice" scene in one take and refused to do it again, finding it extremely painful and emotionally exhausting. [71] That scene, in which Streep is ordered by an SS guard at Auschwitz to choose which of her two children would be gassed and which would proceed to the labor camp, is her most famous scene, according to Emma Brockes of The Guardian who wrote in 2006: "It's classic Streep, the kind of scene that makes your scalp tighten, but defter in a way is her handling of smaller, harder-to-grasp emotions". [17] Among several acting awards, Streep won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance, [72] and her characterization was voted the third greatest movie performance of all time by Premiere magazine. [73] Roger Ebert said of her delivery:

      Streep plays the Brooklyn scenes with an enchanting Polish-American accent (she has the first accent I've ever wanted to hug), and she plays the flashbacks in subtitled German and Polish. There is hardly an emotion that Streep doesn't touch in this movie, and yet we're never aware of her straining. This is one of the most astonishing and yet one of the most unaffected and natural performances I can imagine. [74]

      Pauline Kael, on the contrary, called the film an "infuriatingly bad movie", and thought that Streep "decorporealizes" herself, which she believed explained why her movie heroines "don't seem to be full characters, and why there are no incidental joys to be had from watching her". [75]

      In 1983, Streep played her first non-fictional character, the nuclear whistleblower and labor union activist Karen Silkwood, who died in a suspicious car accident while investigating alleged wrongdoing at the Kerr-McGee plutonium plant, in Mike Nichols' biographical film Silkwood. Streep felt a personal connection to Silkwood, [76] and in preparation, she met with people close to the woman, and in doing so realized that each person saw a different aspect of her personality. [77] She said:

      I didn't try to turn myself into Karen. I just tried to look at what she did. I put together every piece of information I could find about her . What I finally did was look at the events in her life, and try to understand her from the inside. [77]

      Jack Kroll of Newsweek considered Streep's characterization to have been "brilliant", while Silkwood's boyfriend Drew Stephens expressed approval in that Streep had played Karen as a human being rather than a myth, despite Karen's father Bill thinking that Streep and the film had dumbed his daughter down. Pauline Kael believed that Streep had been miscast. [78] Streep next played opposite Robert De Niro in the romance Falling in Love (1984), which was poorly received, and portrayed a fighter for the French Resistance during World War II in the British drama Plenty (1985), adapted from the play by David Hare. For the latter, Roger Ebert wrote that she conveyed "great subtlety it is hard to play an unbalanced, neurotic, self-destructive woman, and do it with such gentleness and charm . Streep creates a whole character around a woman who could have simply been a catalogue of symptoms." [79] In 2008, Molly Haskell praised Streep's performance in Plenty, believing it to be "one of Streep's most difficult and ambiguous" films and "most feminist" role. [80]

      Longworth considers Streep's next release, Out of Africa (1985), to have established her as a Hollywood superstar. In the film, Streep starred as the Danish writer Karen Blixen, opposite Robert Redford's Denys Finch Hatton. Director Sydney Pollack was initially dubious about Streep in the role, as he did not think she was sexy enough, and had considered Jane Seymour for the part. Pollack recalls that Streep impressed him in a different way: "She was so direct, so honest, so without bullshit. There was no shielding between her and me." [81] Streep and Pollack often clashed during the 101-day shoot in Kenya, particularly over Blixen's voice. Streep had spent much time listening to tapes of Blixen, and began speaking in an old-fashioned and aristocratic fashion, which Pollack thought excessive. [82] A significant commercial success, the film won a Golden Globe for Best Picture. [83] It also earned Streep another Academy Award nomination for Best Actress, and the film ultimately won Best Picture. Film critic Stanley Kauffmann praised her performance, writing "Meryl Streep is back in top form. This means her performance in Out of Africa is at the highest level of acting in film today." [84]

      Longworth notes that the dramatic success of Out of Africa led to a backlash of critical opinion against Streep in the years that followed, especially as she was now demanding $4 million a picture. Unlike other stars at the time, such as Sylvester Stallone and Tom Cruise, Streep "never seemed to play herself", and certain critics felt her technical finesse led people to literally see her acting. [85] Her next films did not appeal to a wide audience she co-starred with Jack Nicholson in the dramas Heartburn (1986) and Ironweed (1987), in which she sang onscreen for the first time since the "Great Performances" telecast of the Phoenix Theater production of Secret Service (1977). In Evil Angels [c] (1988), she played Lindy Chamberlain, an Australian woman who had been convicted of the murder of her infant daughter despite claiming that the baby had been taken by a dingo. Filmed in Australia, Streep won the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role, [86] [87] [88] a Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival, and the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress. [89] Streep has said of developing the Australian accent in the film: "I had to study a little bit for Australian because it's not dissimilar [to American], so it's like coming from Italian to Spanish. You get a little mixed up." [17] Vincent Canby of The New York Times referred to her performance as "another stunning performance", played with "the kind of virtuosity that seems to re-define the possibilities of screen acting". [90]

      In 1989, Streep lobbied to play the lead role in Oliver Stone's adaption of the play Evita, but two months before filming was due to commence, she dropped out, citing "exhaustion" initially, although it was later revealed that there was a dispute over her salary. [91] By the end of the decade, Streep actively looked to star in a comedy. She found the role in She-Devil (1989), a satire that parodied societal obsession with beauty and cosmetic surgery, in which she played a glamorous writer. [92] Though the film was not a success, Richard Corliss of Time wrote that Streep was the "one reason" to see it, and observed that it marked a departure from the dramatic roles she was known to play. [93] Reacting to her string of poorly received films, Streep said: "Audiences are shrinking as the marketing strategy defines more and more narrowly who they want to reach males from 16 to 25 – it's become a chicken-and-egg syndrome. Which came first? First, they release all these summer movies, then do a demographic survey of who's going to see them." [91]

      1990s Edit

      Biographer Karen Hollinger described the early 1990s as a downturn in the popularity of Streep's films, attributing this partly to a critical perception that her comedies had been an attempt to convey a lighter image following several serious, but commercially unsuccessful, dramas, and, more significantly, to the lack of options available to an actress in her forties. [94] Streep commented that she had limited her options by her preference to work in Los Angeles, close to her family, [94] a situation that she had anticipated in a 1981 interview when she commented, "By the time an actress hits her mid-forties, no one's interested in her anymore. And if you want to fit a couple of babies into that schedule as well, you've got to pick your parts with great care." [66] At the Screen Actor's Guild National Women's Conference in 1990, Streep keynoted the first national event, emphasizing the decline in women's work opportunities, pay parity, and role models within the film industry. [95] She criticized the film industry for downplaying the importance of women both on screen and off. [89]

      After roles in the comedy-drama Postcards from the Edge (1990), and the comedy-fantasy Defending Your Life (1991), Streep starred with Goldie Hawn in the farcical black comedy, Death Becomes Her (1992), with Bruce Willis as their co-star. Streep persuaded writer David Koepp to re-write several of the scenes, particularly the one in which her character has an affair with a younger man, which she believed was "unrealistically male" in its conception. The seven-month shoot was the longest of Streep's career, during which she got into character by "thinking about being slightly pissed off all of the time". [96] Due to Streep's allergies to numerous cosmetics, special prosthetics had to be designed to age her by ten years to look 54, although Streep believed that they made her look nearer 70. [97] Longworth considers Death Becomes Her to have been "the most physical performance Streep had yet committed to screen, all broad weeping, smirking, and eye-rolling". [98] Although it was a commercial success, earning $15.1 million in just five days, Streep's contribution to comedy was generally not taken well by critics. [99] Time ' s Richard Corliss wrote approvingly of Streep's "wicked-witch routine" but dismissed the film as "She-Devil with a make-over" and one which "hates women". [100] [99] Streep later admitted to having disliked filming the scenes involving heavy special effects and vowed never to work on a film with heavy special effects again. [101]

      Streep appeared with Jeremy Irons, Glenn Close and Winona Ryder in The House of the Spirits (1993), set in Chile during Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship. The film was not well received by critics. [102] Anthony Lane of The New Yorker wrote: "This is really quite an achievement. It brings together Jeremy Irons, Meryl Streep, Winona Ryder, Antonio Banderas, and Vanessa Redgrave and insures that, without exception, they all give their worst performances ever". [102] The following year, Streep starred in The River Wild, as the mother of children on a whitewater rafting trip who encounter two violent criminals (Kevin Bacon and John C. Reilly) in the wilderness. Though critical reaction was generally mixed, Peter Travers of Rolling Stone found her to be "strong, sassy and looser than she has ever been onscreen". [103]

      Streep's most successful film of the decade was the romantic drama The Bridges of Madison County (1995) directed by Clint Eastwood, who adapted the film from Robert James Waller's novel of the same name. [104] It relates the story of Robert Kincaid (Eastwood), a photographer working for National Geographic, who has a love affair with a middle-aged Italian farm wife Francesca (Streep). Though Streep disliked the novel it was based on, she found the script to be a special opportunity for an actress her age. [105] She gained weight for the part and dressed differently from the character in the book to emulate voluptuous Italian film stars such as Sophia Loren. Both Loren and Anna Magnani were an influence in her portrayal, and Streep viewed Pier Paolo Pasolini's Mamma Roma (1962) prior to filming. [106] The film was a box office hit and grossed over $70 million in the United States. [107] The film, unlike the novel, was warmly received by critics. Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote that Eastwood had managed to create "a moving, elegiac love story at the heart of Mr. Waller's self-congratulatory overkill", while Joe Morgenstern of The Wall Street Journal described it as "one of the most pleasurable films in recent memory". [107] Longworth believes that Streep's performance was "crucial to transforming what could have been a weak soap opera into a vibrant work of historical fiction implicitly critiquing postwar America's stifling culture of domesticity". [108] She considers it to have been the role in which Streep became "arguably the first middle-aged actress to be taken seriously by Hollywood as a romantic heroine". [109]

      Streep played the estranged sister of Bessie (Diane Keaton), a woman battling leukemia, in Marvin's Room (1996), an adaptation of the play by Scott McPherson. Streep recommended Keaton for the role. [110] The film also featured Leonardo DiCaprio as the rebellious son of Streep's character. Roger Ebert stated that, "Streep and Keaton, in their different styles, find ways to make Lee and Bessie into much more than the expression of their problems." [111] The film was well received, and Streep earned another Golden Globe nomination for her performance. [57]

      Streep's performance in . First Do No Harm (1997) garnered her a second Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie. In 1998, Streep first appeared opposite Michael Gambon and Catherine McCormack in Pat O'Connor's Dancing at Lughnasa, another Broadway adaptation, which was entered into the Venice Film Festival in its year of release. [112] Janet Maslin of The New York Times remarked that "Meryl Streep has made many a grand acting gesture in her career, but the way she simply peers out a window in Dancing at Lughnasa ranks with the best. Everything the viewer need know about Kate Mundy, the woman she plays here, is written on that prim, lonely face and its flabbergasted gaze." [113] Later that year, she played a housewife dying of cancer in One True Thing. The film met with positive reviews. Mick LaSalle in the San Francisco Chronicle declared, "After One True Thing, critics who persist in the fiction that Streep is a cold and technical actress will need to get their heads examined. She is so instinctive and natural – so thoroughly in the moment and operating on flights of inspiration – that she's able to give us a woman who's at once wildly idiosyncratic and utterly believable." [114] Los Angeles Times film critic Kenneth Turan noted that her role "is one of the least self-consciously dramatic and surface showy of her career," but she "adds a level of honesty and reality that makes [her performance] one of her most moving." [115]

      Streep portrayed Roberta Guaspari, a real-life New Yorker who found passion and enlightenment teaching violin to the inner-city kids of East Harlem, in the music drama Music of the Heart (1999). Streep replaced Madonna, who dropped out of the project before filming began due to creative differences with director Wes Craven. [116] [117] Required to play the violin, Streep underwent two months of intense training, five to six hours a day. [116] Streep received nominations for an Academy Award, a Golden Globe and a Screen Actors Guild Award for her performance. Roger Ebert wrote that "Meryl Streep is known for her mastery of accents she may be the most versatile speaker in the movies. Here you might think she has no accent, unless you've heard her real speaking voice then you realize that Guaspari's speaking style is no less a particular achievement than Streep's other accents. This is not Streep's voice, but someone else's – with a certain flat quality, as if later education and refinement came after a somewhat unsophisticated childhood." [118]

      2000s Edit

      Streep entered the 2000s with a voice cameo in Steven Spielberg's A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001), a science fiction film about a childlike android, played by Haley Joel Osment. [119] The same year, Streep co-hosted the annual Nobel Peace Prize Concert with Liam Neeson which was held in Oslo, Norway, on December 11, 2001, in honour of the Nobel Peace Prize laureate, the United Nations and Kofi Annan. [120] [121] In 2001, Streep returned to the stage for the first time in more than twenty years, playing Arkadina in The Public Theater's revival of Anton Chekhov's The Seagull, directed by Mike Nichols and co-starring Kevin Kline, Natalie Portman, John Goodman, Marcia Gay Harden, Stephen Spinella, Debra Monk, Larry Pine and Philip Seymour Hoffman. [122] Streep's son, Henry Gummer, later to be known as musician Henry Wolfe, was also featured in the play in the role of Yakov, a hired workman.

      The same year, Streep began work on Spike Jonze's comedy-drama Adaptation. (2002), in which she portrayed real-life journalist Susan Orlean. Lauded by critics and viewers alike, [123] the film won Streep her fourth Golden Globe in the Best Supporting Actress category. [57] A. O. Scott in The New York Times considered Streep's portrayal of Orlean to have been "played with impish composure", noting the contrast in her "wittily realized" character with love interest Chris Cooper's "lank-haired, toothless charisma" as the autodidact arrested for poaching rare orchids. [124] Streep appeared alongside Nicole Kidman and Julianne Moore in Stephen Daldry's The Hours (2002), based on the 1999 novel by Michael Cunningham. Focusing on three women of different generations whose lives are interconnected by the novel Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf, the film was generally well received and won all three leading actresses a Silver Bear for Best Actress. [125]

      In 2003, Streep re-united with Mike Nichols to star with Al Pacino and Emma Thompson in the HBO's adaptation of Tony Kushner's six-hour play Angels in America, the story of two couples whose relationships dissolve amidst the backdrop of Reagan era politics. Streep, who was cast in four roles in the miniseries, received her second Emmy Award and fifth Golden Globe for her performance. [57] [126] She appeared in Jonathan Demme's moderately successful remake of The Manchurian Candidate in 2004, [127] co-starring Denzel Washington, playing the role of a woman who is both a U.S. senator and the manipulative, ruthless mother of a vice-presidential candidate. [128] The same year, she played the supporting role of Aunt Josephine in Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events alongside Jim Carrey, based on the first three novels in Snicket's book series. The black comedy received generally favorable reviews from critics, [129] and won the Academy Award for Best Makeup. [130] Streep also narrated the film Monet's Palate. [131] Streep was next cast in the comedy film Prime (2005), directed by Ben Younger. In the film, she played Lisa Metzger, the Jewish psychoanalyst of a divorced and lonesome business-woman, played by Uma Thurman, who enters a relationship with Metzger's 23-year-old son (Bryan Greenberg). A modest mainstream success, it eventually grossed US$67.9 million internationally. [132] Roger Ebert noted how Streep had "that ability to cut through the solemnity of a scene with a zinger that reveals how all human effort is, after all, comic at some level". [133]

      In August and September 2006, Streep starred onstage at The Public Theater's production of Mother Courage and Her Children at the Delacorte Theatre in Central Park. [134] The Public Theater production was a new translation by playwright Tony Kushner (Angels in America), with songs in the Weill/Brecht style written by composer Jeanine Tesori (Caroline, or Change) veteran director George C. Wolfe was at the helm. Streep starred alongside Kevin Kline and Austin Pendleton in this three-and-a-half-hour play. [135] [36] Around the same time, Streep, along with Lily Tomlin, portrayed the last two members of what was once a popular family country music act in Robert Altman's final film A Prairie Home Companion (2006). A comedic ensemble piece featuring Lindsay Lohan, Tommy Lee Jones, Kevin Kline and Woody Harrelson, the film revolves around the behind-the-scenes activities at the long-running public radio show of the same name. The film grossed more than US$26 million, the majority of which came from domestic markets. [136]

      Commercially, Streep fared better with a role in The Devil Wears Prada (also 2006), a loose screen adaptation of Lauren Weisberger's 2003 novel of the same name. Streep portrayed the powerful and demanding Miranda Priestly, fashion magazine editor (and boss of a recent college graduate played by Anne Hathaway). Though the overall film received mixed reviews, her portrayal, of what Ebert calls the "poised and imperious Miranda", [137] drew rave reviews from critics, and earned her many award nominations, including her record-setting 14th Oscar bid, as well as another Golden Globe. [138] [139] On its commercial release, the film became Streep's biggest commercial success to this point, grossing more than US$326.5 million worldwide. [140]

      She portrayed a wealthy university patron in Chen Shi-zheng's much-delayed feature drama Dark Matter, a film about a Chinese science graduate student who becomes violent after dealing with academic politics at a U.S. university. Inspired by the events of the 1991 University of Iowa shooting, [141] and initially scheduled for a 2007 release, producers and investors decided to shelve Dark Matter out of respect for the victims of the Virginia Tech shooting in April 2007. [142] The drama received negative to mixed reviews upon its limited 2008 release. [143] Streep played a U.S. government official who investigates an Egyptian foreign national suspected of terrorism in the political thriller Rendition (2007), directed by Gavin Hood. [144] Keen to get involved in a thriller film, Streep welcomed the opportunity to star in a film genre for which she was not usually offered scripts, and immediately signed on to the project. [145] Upon its release, Rendition was less commercially successful, [146] and received mixed reviews. [147]

      In this period, Streep had a short role alongside Vanessa Redgrave, Glenn Close, and her eldest daughter Mamie Gummer in Lajos Koltai's drama film Evening (2007), based on the 1998 novel of the same name by Susan Minot. Switching between the present and the past, it tells the story of a bedridden woman, who remembers her tumultuous life in the mid-1950s. [148] The film was released to a lukewarm reaction from critics, who called it "beautifully filmed, but decidedly dull [and] a colossal waste of a talented cast". [149] She had a role in Robert Redford's Lions for Lambs (also 2007), a film about the connection between a platoon of United States soldiers in Afghanistan, a U.S. senator, a reporter, and a California college professor. Like Evening, critics felt that the talent of the cast was wasted, and that it suffered from slow pacing, although one critic announced that Streep positively stood out, being "natural, unforced, quietly powerful", in comparison to Redford's forced performance. [150]

      Streep found major commercial success when she starred in Phyllida Lloyd's Mamma Mia! (2008), a film adaptation of the musical of the same name, based on the songs of Swedish pop group ABBA. Co-starring Amanda Seyfried, Pierce Brosnan, Stellan Skarsgård, Colin Firth, Julie Walters, and Christine Baranski, Streep played a single mother and a former girl-group singer, whose daughter (Seyfried), a bride-to-be who never met her father, invites three likely paternal candidates to her wedding on the idyllic Greek island of Skopelos. [151] An instant box office success, Mamma Mia! became Streep's highest-grossing film to date, with box office receipts of US$602.6 million, [152] also ranking it first among the highest-grossing musical films. [153] Nominated for another Golden Globe, Streep's performance was generally well received by critics, with Wesley Morris of The Boston Globe commenting: "The greatest actor in American movies has finally become a movie star." [154]

      Doubt (also 2008) features Streep with Philip Seymour Hoffman, Amy Adams, and Viola Davis. A drama revolving around the stern principal nun (Streep) of a Bronx Catholic school in 1964 who brings accusations of pedophilia against a popular priest (Hoffman), the film became a moderate box office success, [155] and was hailed by many critics as one of the best films of 2008. The film received five Academy Awards nominations, for its four lead actors and for Shanley's script. [156] Ebert, who awarded the film the full four stars, highlighted Streep's caricature of a nun, who "hates all inroads of the modern world", [157] while Kelly Vance of The East Bay Express remarked: "It's thrilling to see a pro like Streep step into an already wildly exaggerated role, and then ramp it up a few notches just for the sheer hell of it. Grim, red-eyed, deathly pale Sister Aloysius may be the scariest nun of all time." [158]

      In 2009, Streep played chef Julia Child in Nora Ephron's Julie & Julia, co-starring with Stanley Tucci, and again with Amy Adams. (Tucci and Streep had worked together earlier in Devil Wears Prada.) The first major motion picture based on a blog, Julie and Julia contrasts the life of Child in the early years of her culinary career with the life of young New Yorker Julie Powell (Adams), who aspires to cook all 524 recipes in Child's cookbook Mastering the Art of French Cooking. [159] Longworth believes her caricature of Julia Child was "quite possibly the biggest performance of her career, while also drawing on her own experience to bring lived-in truth to the story of a late bloomer". [108] In Nancy Meyers' romantic comedy It's Complicated (also 2009), Streep starred with Alec Baldwin and Steve Martin. She received nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for both Julie & Julia and It's Complicated she won the award for Julie & Julia, and later received her 16th Oscar nomination for it. [160] She also lent her voice to Mrs. Felicity Fox in Wes Anderson's stop-motion film Fantastic Mr. Fox. [161]

      2010s Edit

      Streep re-teamed with Mamma Mia director Phyllida Lloyd on The Iron Lady (2011), a British biographical film about Margaret Thatcher, which takes a look at the Prime Minister during the Falklands War and her years in retirement. [162] Streep, who attended a session of the House of Commons to see British Members of Parliament (MPs) in action in preparation for her role as Thatcher, [163] called her casting "a daunting and exciting challenge". [164] While the film had a mixed reception, Streep's performance gained rave reviews, earning her Best Actress awards at the Golden Globes and the BAFTAs, as well as her third win at the 84th Academy Awards. [165] Former advisers, friends, and family of Thatcher criticized Streep's portrayal of her as "inaccurate" and "biased". [166] The following year, after Thatcher's death, Streep issued a formal statement describing Thatcher's "hard-nosed fiscal measures" and "hands-off approach to financial regulation", while praising her "personal strength and grit". [167]

      Streep re-united with Prada director David Frankel on the set of the romantic comedy-drama film Hope Springs (2012), co-starring Tommy Lee Jones and Steve Carell. Streep and Jones play a middle-aged couple, who attend a week of intensive marriage counseling to try to bring back the intimacy missing in their relationship. Reviews for the film were mostly positive, with critics praising the "mesmerizing performances . which offer filmgoers some grown-up laughs – and a thoughtful look at mature relationships". [168] In 2013, Streep starred alongside Julia Roberts and Ewan McGregor in the black comedy drama August: Osage County (2013) about a dysfunctional family that re-unites into the familial house when their patriarch suddenly disappears. Based on Tracy Letts's Pulitzer Prize-winning eponymous play, Streep received positive reviews for her portrayal of the family's strong-willed and contentious matriarch, who is suffering from oral cancer and an addiction to narcotics. She was subsequently nominated for another Golden Globe, SAG, and Academy Award. [169]

      In 2014's The Giver, a motion picture adaptation of the young adult novel, Streep played a community leader. [170] Set in 2048, the social science fiction film recounts the story of a post-apocalyptic community without war, pain, suffering, differences or choice, where a young boy is chosen to learn the real world. Streep was aware of the book before being offered the role by co-star and producer Jeff Bridges. [171] Upon its release, The Giver was met with generally mixed to negative reviews from critics. [172] Streep also had a small role in the period drama film The Homesman (2014). Set in the 1850s midwest, the film stars Hilary Swank and Tommy Lee Jones as an unusual pair who help three women driven to madness by the frontier to get back East. Streep does not appear until near the end of the film, playing a preacher's wife, who takes the women into care. [173] The Homesman premiered at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival where it garnered largely positive reviews from critics. [174]

      Directed by Rob Marshall, Into the Woods (also 2014) is a Disney film adaptation of the Broadway musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim in which Streep plays a witch. [175] A fantasy genre crossover inspired by the Grimm Brothers' fairy tales, it centers on a childless couple who set out to end a curse placed on them by Streep's vengeful witch. [176] [177] Though the film was dismissed by some critics such as Mark Kermode as "irritating naffness", [178] Streep's performance earned her Academy Award, Golden Globe, SAG, and Critic's Choice Award nominations for Best Supporting Actress. [179] In July 2014, it was announced that Streep would portray Maria Callas in Master Class, but the project was pulled after director Mike Nichols's death in November of the same year. [180]

      In 2015, Streep starred in Jonathan Demme's Ricki and the Flash, playing a grocery store checkout worker by day who is a rock musician at night, and who has one last chance to reconnect with her estranged family. [181] Streep learned to play the guitar for the semi-autobiographical drama-comedy film, [182] which again featured Streep with her eldest daughter Mamie Gummer. [182] Reviews of the film were generally mixed. [183] Streep's other film of this time was director Sarah Gavron's period drama Suffragette (also 2015), co-starring Carey Mulligan and Helena Bonham Carter. In the film, she played the small, but pivotal, role of Emmeline Pankhurst, a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. [184] The film received mostly positive reviews, particularly for the performances of the cast, though its distributor earned criticism that Streep's prominent position within the marketing was misleading. [185]

      Following the duties of the president at the 66th Berlin International Film Festival in 2016, [186] Streep starred in the Stephen Frears-directed comedy Florence Foster Jenkins (2016), an eponymous biopic about a blithely unaware tone-deaf opera singer who insists upon public performance. [187] Other cast members were Hugh Grant and Simon Helberg. [188] Robbie Collin considered it to be one of her most "human performance" and felt that it was "full of warmth that gives way to heart-pinching pathos". [189] She won the Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Actress in a Comedy, [190] and received Academy Award, Golden Globe, SAG, and BAFTA nominations. [191]

      Streep next starred as the first American female newspaper publisher, Katharine Graham, to Tom Hanks' Ben Bradlee, in Steven Spielberg's political drama The Post (2017), which centers on The Washington Post ' s publication of the 1971 Pentagon Papers. [192] The film received positive reviews with praise directed to the performances of the two leads. [193] Manohla Dargis wrote that "Streep creates an acutely moving portrait of a woman who in liberating herself helps instigate a revolution". [194] It earned over $177 million against a budget of $50 million. [195] Streep received her 31st Golden Globe nomination and 21st Academy Award nomination for Best Actress. [196] [197]

      In 2018, Streep briefly reprised her role in the musical sequel Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again. [198] She also played a supporting part in Rob Marshall's Mary Poppins Returns, a musical sequel to the 1964 film Mary Poppins starring Emily Blunt in the titular role. [199] Streep next featured in her first main role in a television series by starring in the second season of the HBO drama series Big Little Lies in 2019. She took on the part of Mary Louise Wright, the mother-in-law of Nicole Kidman's character. [200] Liane Moriarty, author of the novel of the same name, on which the first season is based, wrote a 200-page novella that served as the basis for the second season. Moriarty decided to name the new character Mary Louise, after Streep's legal name. Streep subsequently agreed to the part without reading a script for the first time in her career. [201] Writing for the BBC, Caryn James labeled her performance "delicious and wily" and found her to be the "embodiment of a passive-aggressive granny". [202] Streep then starred in the Steven Soderbergh-directed biographical comedy The Laundromat, about the Panama Papers. It was the first movie distributed by Netflix in which Streep starred. [203] She also played Aunt March in Greta Gerwig's Little Women, co-starring with Saoirse Ronan, Emma Watson, Florence Pugh, Timothée Chalamet, and Laura Dern. [204] The film received critical acclaim and grossed over $216 million against its $40 million budget. [205] [206]

      In 2020, Streep voiced a role in the Apple TV+ animated short film Here We Are: Notes for Living on Planet Earth. [207]

      2020s Edit

      In 2020, Streep had leading roles in two films, both released by streaming services. She reunited with Nicole Kidman for Netflix, in Ryan Murphy's The Prom, a film adaptation of the Broadway musical of the same name [208] and with director Steven Soderbergh for his HBO Max comedy film Let Them All Talk. [209] Streep will next star opposite Jennifer Lawrence in Don't Look Up directed by Adam McKay, for Netflix. [210]

      In 2004, Streep was awarded the AFI Life Achievement Award by the board of directors of the American Film Institute. [211] In 2011, she received a Kennedy Center Honors, introduced by Tracey Ullman, and speeches by 2009 Kennedy Center Honoree Robert De Niro and 2003 Kennedy Center Honoree Mike Nichols. Those also to honor Streep included, Kevin Kline, Emily Blunt, Stanley Tucci, and Anne Hathaway. The tribute ended with the whole cast who sang "She's My Pal," a play on "He's My Pal" from Ironweed. [212]

      In November 2014, President Barack Obama bestowed upon Streep the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor. [213] The citation reads as follows, "Meryl Streep is one of the most widely known and acclaimed actors in history. Ms. Streep has captured our imaginations with her unparalleled ability to portray a wide range of roles and attract an audience that has only grown over time, portraying characters who embody the full range of the human experience." [214]

      In January 2017, Viola Davis presented Streep with the Cecil B. DeMille at the Golden Globes. Davis stated to Streep "You make me proud to be an artist". [215] In her acceptance speech, Streep quoted the recently departed Carrie Fisher, saying, "Take your broken heart and make it into art." [216]

      Vanity Fair commented that "it's hard to imagine that there was a time before Meryl Streep was the greatest-living actress". [18] Emma Brockes of The Guardian notes that despite Streep's being "one of the most famous actresses in the world", it is "strangely hard to pin an image on Streep", in a career where she has "laboured to establish herself as an actor whose roots lie in ordinary life". [17] Despite her success, Streep has always been modest about her own acting and achievements in cinema. She has stated that she has no particular method when it comes to acting, learning from the days of her early studies that she cannot articulate her practice. She said in 1987, "I have a smattering of things I've learned from different teachers, but nothing I can put into a valise and open it up and say, 'Now, which one would you like?' Nothing I can count on, and that makes it more dangerous. But then, the danger makes it more exciting." She has stated that her ideal director is one who gives her complete artistic control, and allowing her a degree of improvisation and to learn from her own mistakes. [217]

      Karina Longworth notes how "external" Streep's performances are, "chameleonic" in her impersonation of characters, "subsuming herself into them, rather than personifying them". In her early roles such as Manhattan and Kramer vs. Kramer, she was compared to both Diane Keaton and Jill Clayburgh, in that her characters were unsympathetic, which Streep has attributed to the tendency to be drawn to playing women who are difficult to like and lack empathy. [217] Streep has stated that many consider her to be a technical actor, but she professed that it comes down to her love of reading the initial script, adding, "I come ready and I don't want to screw around and waste the first 10 takes on adjusting lighting and everybody else getting comfortable". [108]

      Mike Nichols, who directed Streep in Silkwood, Heartburn, Postcards from the Edge, and Angels in America, praised Streep's ability to transform herself into her characters, remarking that, "In every role, she becomes a totally new human being. As she becomes the person she is portraying, the other performers begin to react to her as if she were that person." [218] He said that directing her is "so much like falling in love that it has the characteristics of a time which you remember as magical, but which is shrouded in mystery". [219] He also noted that Streep's acting ability had a profound impact on her co-stars, and that "one could improve by 1000% purely by watching her". [218] Longworth believes that in nearly every film, Streep has "sly infused" a feminist point of view in her portrayals. [220] However, film critic Molly Haskell has stated, "None of her heroines are feminist, strictly speaking. Yet, they uncannily embody various crosscurrents of experience in the last twenty years, as women have re-defined themselves against the background of the women's movement". [108]

      Streep is well known for her ability to imitate a wide range of accents [221] – from Danish in Out of Africa (1985) to British received pronunciation in The French Lieutenant's Woman (1981), Plenty (1985), and The Iron Lady (2011) Italian in The Bridges of Madison County (1995) a southern American accent in The Seduction of Joe Tynan (1979) a Minnesota accent in A Prairie Home Companion (2006) Upstate New York in Ironweed (1987) and a heavy Bronx accent in Doubt (2008). Streep has stated that she grew up listening to artists such as Barbra Streisand, the Beatles, and Bob Dylan, and she learned a lot about how to use her voice, her "instrument", by listening to Barbra Streisand's albums. [222] In the film Evil Angels (1988, released in the U.S. as A Cry in the Dark), in which she portrays a New Zealand transplant to Australia, Streep developed a hybrid of Australian and New Zealand English. Her performance received the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role, [86] [87] as well as Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival, and the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress. [89]

      For her role in the film Sophie's Choice (1982), Streep spoke both English and German with a Polish accent, as well as Polish itself. [223] In The Iron Lady, she reproduced the vocal style of Margaret Thatcher from the time before Thatcher became Britain's Prime Minister, and after she had taken elocution lessons to change her pitch, pronunciation, and delivery. [224] [223] Streep has commented that using accents as part of her acting is a technique she views as an obvious requirement in her portrayal of a character. [225] When questioned in Belfast as to how she reproduces different accents, Streep replied in a reportedly "perfect" Belfast accent: "I listen." [226] [227] [225]

      After Streep starred in Mamma Mia!, her rendition of the titular song rose to popularity on the Portuguese music charts, where it peaked at number eight in October 2008. [228] At the 35th People's Choice Awards, her version of "Mamma Mia" won an award for "Favorite Song From A Soundtrack". [229] In 2008, Streep was nominated for a Grammy Award (her fifth nomination) for her work on the Mamma Mia! soundtrack. [230] Streep has narrated numerous audio books, including three by children's book author William Steig: Brae Irene, Spinky Sulks, and The One and Only Shrek!. [231]

      Streep is the spokesperson for the National Women's History Museum, to which she has made significant donations (including her fee for The Iron Lady, which was $1 million), and hosted numerous events. [232] On October 4, 2012, Streep donated $1 million to The Public Theater in honor of both its late founder, Joseph Papp, and her friend, the author Nora Ephron. [233] She also supports Gucci's "Chime for Change" campaign that aims to spread female empowerment. [234]

      In 2014, Streep established two scholarships for students at the University of Massachusetts Lowell – the Meryl Streep Endowed Scholarship for English majors, and the Joan Hertzberg Endowed Scholarship (named for Streep's former classmate at Vassar College) for math majors. [235]

      In April 2015, it was announced that Streep had funded a screenwriters lab for female screenwriters over forty years old, called the Writers Lab, to be run by New York Women in Film & Television and the collective IRIS. [236] [237] The Lab was the only one of its kind in the world for female screenwriters over forty years old. [237] In 2015, Streep signed an open letter for which One Campaign had been collecting signatures the letter was addressed to Angela Merkel and Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, urging them to focus on women as they served as heads of the G7 in Germany and the AU in South Africa, respectively, in setting development funding priorities. [238] Also in 2015, Streep sent each member of the U.S. Congress a letter supporting the Equal Rights Amendment. [239] Each of her letters was sent with a copy of the book Equal Means Equal: Why the Time for the ERA is Now by Jessica Neuwirth, president of the ERA Coalition. [240]

      When asked in a 2015 interview with Time Out if she was a feminist, Streep replied, "I am a humanist, I am for nice easy balance." [241] In March 2016, Streep, among others, signed a letter asking for gender equality throughout the world, in observance of International Women's Day this was also organized by One Campaign. [242] In 2018, she collaborated with 300 women in Hollywood to set up the Time's Up initiative to protect women from harassment and discrimination. [243]

      On April 25, 2017, Streep publicly backed the campaign to free Oleg Sentsov, a Ukrainian filmmaker from Crimea who was subjected to a sham trial by Russia and jailed in Siberia for 20 years in August 2015. She was pictured alongside Ukrainian lawmaker Mustafa Nayyem with a "Free Sentsov" sign in a photograph taken during the PEN America Annual Literary Gala on April 25, at which Sentsov was honoured with a 2017 PEN/Barbey Freedom to Write award. [244]

      Politically, Streep has described herself as part of the American Left. [245] She gave a speech at the 2016 Democratic National Convention in support of presidential nominee Hillary Clinton. [246]

      In January 2017, Streep received the Cecil B. DeMille Award for Lifetime Achievement at the 74th Golden Globe Awards, during which she delivered a highly political speech that implicitly criticized then-President-elect Donald Trump. She said Trump had a very strong platform and used it inappropriately to mock a disabled reporter, Serge F. Kovaleski, who, in her words, Trump "outranked in privilege, power, and the capacity to fight back". She added, "When the powerful use their position to bully, we all lose". She also implicitly criticized Trump's hardline stance on immigration, saying "Hollywood is crawling with outsiders and foreigners, and if you kick us all out, you'll have nothing to watch except for football and mixed martial arts, which are not arts." [247] Trump responded via Twitter by calling Streep "one of the most over-rated actresses in Hollywood," and "a Hillary flunky who lost big." [248]

      While promoting the film Suffragette in 2015, Streep accused the review-aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes of disproportionately representing the opinions of male film critics, resulting in a skewed ratio that adversely affected the commercial performances of female-driven movies. "I submit to you that men and women are not the same, they like different things", she said. "Sometimes they like the same thing, but sometimes their tastes diverge. If the Tomatometer is slighted so completely to one set of tastes that drives box office in the United States, absolutely." [249]

      Author Karina Longworth notes that despite her stardom, for decades Streep has managed to maintain a relatively normal personal life. [22] Streep lived with actor John Cazale for three years until he died of lung cancer in March 1978. [250] Streep said of his death:

      I didn't get over it. I don't want to get over it. No matter what you do, the pain is always there in some recess of your mind, and it affects everything that happens afterwards. I think you can assimilate the pain and go on without making an obsession of it. [55]

      Streep married sculptor Don Gummer six months after Cazale's death. [251] They have four children: one son and three daughters, son Henry Wolfe Gummer (born 1979), a musician daughters Mary Willa "Mamie" Gummer (born 1983), an actress Grace Jane Gummer (born 1986), an actress and Louisa Jacobson Gummer (born 1991), a model. [9] [252] In February 2019, Streep became a grandmother for the first time, through her eldest daughter Mamie. [253]

      In August 1985, the family moved into a $1.8-million private estate in Connecticut, with an extensive art studio to facilitate Streep's husband's work, and lived there until they bought a $3-million mansion in Brentwood, Los Angeles, in 1990. [254] They eventually moved back to Connecticut. [255] [256] Streep is the godmother of Billie Lourd, daughter of fellow actress and close friend Carrie Fisher. [257]

      When asked if religion plays a part in her life in 2009, Streep replied: "I follow no doctrine. I don't belong to a church or a temple or a synagogue or an ashram." [258] In an interview in December 2008, she also alluded to her lack of religious belief when she said:

      "So, I've always been really, deeply interested, because I think I can understand the solace that's available in the whole construct of religion. But I really don't believe in the power of prayer, or things would have been avoided that have happened, that are awful. So, it's a horrible position as an intelligent, emotional, yearning human being to sit outside of the available comfort there. But I just can't go there." [259]

      When asked where she draws consolation in the face of aging and death, Streep responded:

      "Consolation? I'm not sure I have it. I have a belief, I guess, in the power of the aggregate human attempt – the best of ourselves. In love and hope and optimism – you know, the magic things that seem inexplicable. Why we are the way we are. I do have a sense of trying to make things better. Where does that come from?" [259]

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